1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Biology is a branch of natural science that deals with the study of living organisms, including their structures, functioning, evolution, distribution and interrelationships. (The American Heritage Dictionary of the English language, 2009). Biology occupies a unique position in the secondary school education curriculum because of its importance as science of life.
In Nigeria the secondary school Biology curriculum is designed to continue students investigation into natural phenomena, to deepen students’ understanding and interest in biological sciences, and also to encourage students‘ability to apply scientific knowledge to everyday life in matters of personal, community, health and agriculture among others (Federal Ministry of Education, 2009). Biology is a very important science subject and stands as the bedrock upon which are based many other science courses like Medicine, Pharmacy, Nursing, Biochemistry, Genetic, Agriculture etc., that are of great economic importance to a nation.
Besides, the importance of Biology to mankind as science of life, it is one of the science subject mostly preferred by many students in the secondary schools because it has less mathematical calculations unlike Physics and Chemistry and deals with non-abstract things. Because of these reasons, Biology has a very high enrolment of students in the external examination (Senior School Certificate Examination) more than Physics and Chemistry.
Regardless of the high number of students’ enrolment in Biology in the senior school examinations conducted by West African Examination Council (WAEC) and National Examination Council (NECO), reports from scholars and educators (Nwagbo, 1999; Biology Chief Examiner‘s Report, 2007; Ige, 2009 and Opara, 2011) indicated that students’ achievement in Biology in the external examinations is poor. The poor achievement of students in Biology in external examination is linked to the use of traditional method (lecture/expository method) in teaching secondary school biology (Isiugo-Abanihe; LongJohn and Ibiene 2010).
The traditional/conventional teaching methods often used by teachers in teaching Biology include the lecture/expository method, demonstration and direct instruction etc. These traditional methods of teaching stress more on the transmission of knowledge in a manner that emphasizes memorization hence they have been characterized by some educators (Ibe and Nwosu, 2003; Sawa, 2011 and Kirshner, Sweller and Clark, 2006) as a poor method of teaching biology and other science subjects.
The conventional/traditional teaching methods involve unidirectional flow of information/knowledge from teacher to the students and do not encourage process skill acquisition needed for proper understanding of biological principles, concepts and facts.
Guisti (2008) referred to these traditional teaching methods as teacher-centered approaches to learning in the sense that the teacher and those up in the educational hierarchy are considered as the possessor of knowledge to be transferred to the students, and as such decides how the knowledge transfer takes place. The unidirectional flow of information in the traditional biology delivery content makes students passive and unable to construct meaningful knowledge in the teaching and learning of Biology.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Service delivery in science subject like biology matters a lot but often at times the students might perform very poor due to use of poor methods of teaching by the teachers, it could also be lack of interest in teaching and learning and sometimes influence of gender. Finally, several researches has been carried out on comparative analysis of biology method of teaching but not even a single research has been carried out on comparative analysis of biology delivery contents in conventional and university of technology.
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The main aim of the study is to examine the comparative analysis of biology delivery contents in conventional and universities of technology. Other specific objectives of the study include;
1. to determine the factors affecting biology delivery contents in conventional and universities of technology.
2. to determine the effect of biology delivery contents on students in conventional and universities of technology.
3. to determine the influence of biology delivery contents on gender in conventional and universities of technology.
4. to proffer possible solutions to the problems.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What are the factors affecting biology delivery contents in conventional and universities of technology?
2. What is the effect of biology delivery contents on students in conventional and universities of technology?
3. What is the influence of biology delivery contents on gender in conventional and universities of technology?
4. What are the possible solutions to the problems?
1.5 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: There is no significant relationship between the method of biology delivery contents in conventional and universities of technology
H1: There is significant relationship between the method of biology delivery contents in conventional and universities of technology
H0: there is no significant difference between biology delivery contents between conventional and universities of technology.
H1: there is significant difference between biology delivery contents between conventional and universities of technology.
H0: Gender does not influence students’ academic performance under the nature of biology delivery contents for conventional and universities of technology
H0: Gender influences students’ academic performance under the nature of biology delivery contents for conventional and universities of technology
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The study on the comparative analysis of biology delivery contents in conventional and universities of technology will be of immense benefit to the entire universities of technology in the sense that it will teachers of biology in the identification of a more effective biology service delivery that will help the students to achieve high in biology and have increased interest for biology which will make them to opt for science courses in higher institution and also appreciate the world of things around them.
It will also enable the teachers and science educators on the identification of better biology delivery content that will make teaching and learning process more interesting because students‘ achievement will be improved upon and their interest sustained, thus enabling the realization of the stated instructional objectives which is the goal of any academic enterprise. Finally, the study will contribute to the body of existing literature and knowledge to this field of studied and basis for further research.
1.7 SCOPE OF STUDY
The study on comparative analysis of biology delivery content is limited to conventional and universities of technology.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint– The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
ComparativeMeasured or judged by estimating the similarity or dissimilarity between one thing and another; relative
AnalysisDetailed examination of the elements or structure of something.
BiologyIs the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical processes, molecular interactions, physiological mechanisms, development and evolution.
ConventionalBased on or in accordance with what is generally done or believed