Project Topics


The study examined the Correlates of Management Practices of Primary School
Head Teachers in South East Nigeria in Promoting Child friendly School
Environment and the factors that have relationship with these practices. The study
sought to determine the demographic correlates of the management practices of
head teachers in: (i) the provision of facilities and equipments in primary schools,
(ii) the protection of the rights of children, (iii) the promotion of healthful
environment for pupil, (iv) the promotion of gender equality, (v) fostering
collaborative relationship between schools, parents and communities and (vi)
encouraging pupils inter-personal relationships with staff Twelve research
questions and six null hypotheses guided the study. A corelational survey research
design was adopted. The sample of 192 was selected from the population of 5,714
primary school head teachers in South East Nigeria using proportionate stratified
random sampling technique. A 58 – item instrument titled Correlates of
Management Practices of Primary School Head Teachers in South East Nigeria in
Promoting Child-friendly School Environment Questionnaire (MAPOT) and an
Observational Rating Scale (ORS) were used for data collection. Data were
analyzed using the statistical package for social sciences version 20. Percentages,
means, standard deviations and Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient
were used to answer the research question, while t-test, ANOVA and multiple
regressions were used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance.
Findings revealed that the state of facilities, equipment and materials for
instruction are grossly inadequate. Findings also revealed that head teachers in
public primary schools in South East Nigeria promote child-friendly school
environment to some extent. Results also indicated that significant relationships
existed between some demographic variables of state, location, gender, experience,
age and the management practices of head teachers in the promotion of childfriendly
school environment. It was recommended among others, that existing head
teacher development programme should be intensified to improve the management
skills of head teachers for effective adoption of child-friendly school environment.
Capacity building workshops should be organized for retraining of head teachers
by different states with a view to making the head teachers independent, proactive
and creative school administrators.
Background of Study
Primary education is a six-year form of education in Nigeria, which children
receive before proceeding to secondary level of education. According to the
National Policy on Education (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2013), primary
education is the form of education attended by children before secondary
education. Primary education exists within the ambits of the law and is empowered
by the State Universal Basic Education Board (SUBEB) that oversees the
management and supervision of primary education.
From the foregoing, it is safe to say that primary education is very important
in Nigerian education system. Quadiri (2001) presents the following intentions of
primary education in Nigeria: to help the child to develop intellectually, physically,
morally, socially and emotionally to provide well-qualified citizens that are
capable of going to secondary and tertiary institutions to be trained as professionals
in various services that are essential for the development of the country; and to
assist primary school learners who cannot further their education to become useful
citizens and the community at large. Primary education is the foundation upon
which other strata of educational edifice are built. Adesina (2011) adds that
primary education serves as foundational levels of all other education by providing
children with a good preparatory ground for further education. These aims agree
with the provisions of the National Policy on Education (Federal Republic of
Nigeria, 2013:21) on the specific objectives of primary education which are to:
develop in the child the ability to adapt to his changing environment giving the
child opportunities for developing manipulative skill to enable him function
effectively in the society within the limit of his capacity; and providing basic tools
for further educational advancement including preparation for trades and crafts of
the locality. For the attainment of these objectives primary school curricular which
have been developed to suit such desires are implemented by the primary school
administrators with the cooperation of the teachers.
Heads of primary schools are tasked with the implications of these
objectives. The success of primary school education therefore rests on effective
primary school administration which involves the participation of the local
communities, well qualified and contented staff. Consequently, the administrators
need the cooperation and support of the parents, teachers, the State Universal
Education Board, Local Government Education Authorities and the Ministry of
The authority of the head teacher according to Nwaham (2008) is viewed in
the position occupied as well as task and responsibilities performed. Head teachers
develop and implement school development plan, provide facilities and
equipments, keeps records both statutory and non-statutory in addition to leading
teaching and learning in schools. Leithwood & Jantzi (1999) classified these roles
and responsibilities: as collaborative decision making providing both informal and
formal opportunities.