Project Topics

EFFECT OF MANPOWER PLANNING ON ORGANISATION PERFORMANCE IN NIGERIA BOTTLING COMPANY

EFFECT
OF MANPOWER PLANNING ON ORGANISATION PERFORMANCE IN NIGERIA
BOTTLING COMPANY PLC KADUNA       

CHAPTER
ONE

1.1      BACKGROUND
OF THE STUDY

The place and value of manpower planning as
a resource for organizational productivity and success cannot be
overemphasized, we are concerned business resources, the organization of
physical and financial resources cannot take place until manpower are
organized, and the effectiveness of the organizational scheme depend on the
manner in which manpower are utilized. Every thing on power is a sense,
therefore we do not organize physical ad financial resources we organized
people who in turn are responsible for the utilization of resources. That
concept of manpower, planning must be applied to all resources or face the
probability that their resources will not be maximized.

Indeed individual firms or organization
cannot do without manpower, our knowledge of elementary economics inform us
that labour (i.e. power) is the human effort, mental or physical exerted in the
production of goods and services it is one of the very important factor of
production; other are land, capital and entrepreneur (equally an aspect of
manpower). The realization of objective by organizations, private or public
greatly depend on the skill, caliber, competence and experience of it work
force. The point of emphasis here is that the success or failure of
organisation is not unconnected with the manpower it recruits, maintain and
develop in the course of its operational life.

Interesting, of all the tasks of management,
managing the human component in an organization is the central and most
important task, because all management depend on how it is done this reveal the
obvious fact that all the activities carried out, performed or engaged in by an
organization as well as the nation are initiated, determined, planned,
implemented and evaluated by the manpower. It is the realization of the
important of manpower to national development and attainment of set
organizational objective, that necessitated its planning and control.

MANPOWER
PLANNING

Moore in 1980 defined manpower planning as a
process which aim to ensure the efficient use of people. He further commented
that manpower planning is concerned with making sure that the right number of
workers are in the right place at the right time, possessing appropriate range
of skill and expertise. Another group of scholars Torrighton et al gave their
definition of manpower planning when they noted that the emphasis (of manpower
planning) is on ensuring that the organization has the right number of people with
the right skill in the right place at the right time.

In every organization manpower planning
activities can be visibly identified at three levels. These are policy level,
planning level and operating level.

Policy
Level:
The various skill to
be recruited and the method to be adopted for such recruitment exercise are
formulated at this level other decision and activities include recommending
method for generating storms and retrieving manpower information (i.e. manpower
information system), formulating and developing a frame work for internal
transfers, promotions, discipline and termination of employee and appointments
and sourcing and allocating the required financial resources to execute
manpower programmes  and activities.

Planning
level:
 This level involve activities like
establishing recruitment system of the organization. Setting the standard
criteria for selection of candidates fitting in place administrative procedure
for provision of central information; and establishing systems for dealing with
issues like internal transfer, promotions, discipline and termination of
appointments.

Operating
level:
This level is
actually responsible for implementation of issue decided at the policy level
through the use of systems framework and settings established at the planning
level. It includes interviewing both applicants for employment and existing
employee, administering and conducting test of skill and aptitudes designing
and placing advertisement for available job  vacancies; establishing relationships with
external sources of manpower supply’ and compiling human resources planning
date.

Meanwhile a number of factors  serves as a constraints to the validity of
manpower plan in an organization, these include:

 

Planning
period:
Time span to a
certain extend affects manpower planning, the longer the period covered the
higher the tendency for variance to exist between forecast and actual situation
and vice –versa Kemembering that the aim of most manpower plans is to avoid
minimist uncertainty of demand and supply of human resources, which is affected
by changes occurring within the general and specific environment of
organization.

Unpredictable
nature of human asset:
The
human assets change like weather, hence passing a serious challenge to the
prease study. Measurement or investigation (Krelter, 1999 p. 48) since human
beings cannot be reduced to laboratory test and they constitute a key success
factor, planning targets and aches, as a matter of necessity have to be
adjusted and reviewed continuously as the occasion demands.

Uncertainty
in General business environment:
The
realities of changes, which occur frequently in both the external and internal
environment of business organization reveal the general nature of planning
which is uncertainty (Kreithner, Ibid, p. 162). Meaning that manpower planning
is a continues never-ending process demand reviews, adjustments, and
readjustment of goal and expectation. Thus flexibility in planning becomes
vital in order to attain established organizational objective.

Unification
of manpower planning approaches

Another obvious limitation of manpower
planning is the inability to arrive at a consensus on a single line of
approach/practice in organizations such an approach should systematically focus
on identification of future manpower needs and problems as may be occasioned by
the fast changing environment of business.

The
need for manpower planning

It is very important to note that
organizations need to plan for how to deal with the problems of advancement in
technology of production, information technology and computerization as it
affects how jobs are to be performed in organization and by whom. Focus on
manpower planning is base on the fact that every departments in an organization
need to be catered for in term of their manpower need.

It is also becoming increasingly challenging
to train manpower for all occupational types in view of the impact of
information and technological advancements and computer jet age syndrome.  

Every organization are interested in
adequate coordination of all unit and departments hence effective manpower
planning must be put in place. And now the cost of labour in an organization is
on the increase these past year, therefore organizations must adequately and
carefully planned to ensure attainment of optimal result.

It is also very important to focus on the
relevance of manpower planning on organization.

Manpower planning provides information
relevant for conducting a successful training programme, making possible a purposeful
retraining and development of existing manpower such training programmes should
not only be related to present job requirements, but equally to future job
requirements from the point of view of bother organizational development and
individual skills development. The integration of manpower planning into the
overall business or organizational planning process will generate information that
can reveal the true cost of future development for example if a company is
planning to introduce a new service facility or better still introducing
enhanced staffing allowances and incentives the true cost could be easily
arrived at using manpower planning tools, overestimation of cost will reflect
an unrealistic expensive venture thus discouraging its introduction, while and
under estimation in this case will make the new facility or product
unrealistically  cheap. The implication
is operating either at a loss or at a disadvantaged angle should the facility
or product be introduced. Finally effective manpower planning can also ease the
difficulties of recruitment. It should be remembered that recruitment is
equally a costly and time consuming activity similarly delays in recruitment
have the tendency   of destroying staff
morale. Hence manpower planning at this point is expected to highlight not only
the turnover patterns but as well indicate possible factors responsible for
such.

 

1.2      STATEMENT
OF THE PROBLEM

One of the problem confronting management in
any organization is the effective way of matching people with jobs. The perenia
question that experts often ask is whether we should design job to suit the
individual or get the individual fit into a job position, before this question
is answered, it is to observed that one of the function of management is to
determine it manpower need.

“The process by which management attempt to
provide for it human resources to accomplish its task” is called manpower
planning, all enterprises must plan their manpower formally or informally.

Manpower is necessary in all organizations
it will be difficult to know the number of personnel required for recruitment
to be reassigned, due for retirement or that need to be retained for better
utilization. Manpower planning reduces excessive recruitment, training and
transfers and thereby save management cost and time. BRUCECOLEMAN in his work
“AN INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR MANPOWER PLANNING” observed that the major changes in
population, technology Renovation and size complexity of organization have made
informed method of employment planning absolute for all but very small and
stable organization.

Uncertainty in general business environment,
the realities of changes, which occur frequently in both the external and
internal environment of business organization, reveal the general nature of
planning which is uncertainly. KREITHNER, IBID, p. 162 meaning that manpower
planning is a continues never – ending  process,
demanding reviews, adjustments readjustment of goals and expectation. Thus
flexibility in planning become vital in order to attain established
organization objective.

Unpredictable nature of human asset, the
human assets changes like weather, hence posing 
a serious challenge to the precise study, measurement or investigation
KREITHNER 1999 P. 48 since human being cannot be reduce to laboratory test and
they constitute a key success factor planning targets and aches as a matter of
necessity have to be adjusted and reviewed continuously as the occasion demand.

Unification of manpower planning approaches,
another obvious limitation of manpower planning is the inability to arrive at a
consensus on a single line of approach/practice in organization such an
approach should systematically focus on the identification of future manpower
need and problems, as may be occasioned by the fast changing environment of
business.

1.3      OBJECTIVE
OF THE STUDY

The researcher of this study is of the view
that manpower is very important factor on organization performance in Nigeria
Bottling Company Plc Kaduna. It is a major tool Management uses to implement
its good objective which are geared toward the survival of the organization,
manpower would not be of any value if it is not productive. The aim and
objectives is to examine the effect of manpower planning on organization
performance in Nigeria Bottling Company Plc Kaduna.

–        
The
researcher work will aid the organization identify its lapses and study it in
regard to manpower planning.

–        
It
will also aid in identifying the operational factor which hampers the effective
and efficient manpower planning of the organization on manpower planning as it
affect organization performance.

–        
To
encourage a good match between manpower recruitment and manpower requirement

1.4      STATEMENT
OF HYPOTHESIS

The research has chosen to formulate the
following hypothesis base on the data collected

HO:
That proper manpower
planning has no effect on organization performance.

H1:
That proper manpower
planning has positive effect on organization performance.

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1.5      JUSTIFICATION
OF STUDY

The main purpose of this study is to show
the significant of manpower in an organization and indicate how it helps to
improve organization performance. There is no gainsaying the fact that human
resources or manpower is a vital asset to an organization it is worth noting
however that it is an expensive asset demanding the application of policies and
strategies that will lead to the recovery of amount invested and as well
gurantee optimal return on investment.

Therefore, this study will be of tremendous
help to both public and private organization to focus on effective manpower
planning to achieve organization goals and objective and its also serves as
academic discipline for other research.

1.6      SCOPE
AND LIMITATION OF STUDY

This study is intended to cover the effect
of manpower, planning on organization performance in Nigeria Bottling Company
Plc, Kaduna.
Also lack of cooperation from the staff and mostly importantly, lack of
encouragement by the management of the organization and administrative
bottlenecks acted as impediments to this study.

1.7      DEFINITION
OF TERMS

Manpower:
Is the Human effort, mental
or physical, exerted in the production of goods and services.

Planning: Is a process concerned with defining ends,
means and conduct of every level of organizational life. It is a management
activity which begins by defining the aim and objective of the organization.

Organization: Is the process of dividing work into
convenient task or duties by creating and maintaining like group to achieve
specific objective.

Manpower
planning:
Manpower planning
is a process which aims to ensure the efficient use of people through making
sure that the right number of workers are in the right place at the right time,
possessing appropriate range of skills and expertise. Manpower planning seeks
to maintain and improve an organization ability to achieve corporate objective
by developing strategies which are design to increase the present and future
contribution of manpower.