1.1BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Strike defined by the Webster’s dictionary as an organization refusal to work by employees of an organization e.t.c because of a disagreement e.g pay or condition. Strike can be defined as temporary stoppage of work in the pursuance of grievance of demand. According to law 184, strike can be defined as they lessation of work by a body of person employed and acting in combination or collected refusal or a refusal under a common understanding of any number of person employed to continue to work for an employer in consequence of a dispute, done as a means of completing their employer or any person or body or person employed, or to any person or anybody of employed to accept terms of employment of and physical condition of work
“The key elements in the definition are
– Lessation of work “which simply means deliberately working at less than usual speed or with les than usual efficiency. And.
– Refusal to continue to work’ includes a refusal to work of usual efficiency
FUNTUWA (1979) defined education as the aggregate of all the processes by which a child or adult develops their ability, attitudes and other forms of behaviors which are of positive value to the society.
Spencer (1963) asserts that education has for his object the formation of character. Dewey 91993) started that optimally education meant the intelligently directed development of possibilities where not in ordinary experience and which assist the individual in the direction of subsequent experience.
From the above concept education institution is aggregate of culture and society by means of which the process of transmitting relevant ideal, knowledge value and skill and training of individuals through various agencies of education especially the schools.
Overtime strike actions has been used a veritable tools of labour or management negotiation tactics, it has been used and some will say over used to low recalcitrant employer both in private and public sector.
Strike has an effect on workers in the public sector with special emphasis on LASU as an Educational Institution, parts of the effect to be considered include pay or condition, job insecurity les of motivation, paralysis of workers initiatives global academic standard e.t.c.
The down turn and subsequent depression, inflatory treads and the degradation of the Nigerian economy in the past decade, has made the socio educational consequences of the emergency of various strike action by unions like the Senior Staff Association of Nigeria (SSANU) the non Academic Staff Union (NASU), the Academic Staff Union University (ASUU). These unions are responsible for a continuous association of wages earns for the purpose of maintaining or improving the conditions of the working lives. The actions of the union in the educational institution in Nigeria are much powerful than the political parties because they have legitimate power to call out worker on strike.
The power in this collective of workers can promote the resolution of a variety of problems by the workforce.
The higher education in Nigeria is composed of universities, polytechnics, institutions of technology, colleges of education that from part of are affiliated to universities and polytechnics, colleges and professional specialized institutions of technology, colleges and professional specialized institutions. They can be further categorized as state or federal government Universities are owned and funded by the federal government, while state Universities owned and financed by the state government. First generation Universities are the six Universities established in the 1970’s while third generation.
Universities refer to the eleven institutions including the universities of Technology established in the 1980’s and 1990’s.
Lagos State University was established in 1983. it fall between the second generation universities, Nigeria universities experienced a wave of strike as Lecturers ands student from one University after another demonstrate for different reasons.
The decay in Nigeria Institutions of Higher Learning is caused, in part, by the fact that lecturers and professors in Nigerian Universities go on strike for six to nine months. However, there are shortage of tools and facilities in Nigeria universities but constant strike by workers make academic decay in Nigeria institution worse, not better.
The problems we have highest are not unique to Nigeria alone, even in the united state, the professors are doing more less, indeed, this is the experience of many African Universities expert perhaps South Africa, but in is unusual to her that professor in this country go on strike every year.
1.2STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The devastating effect of strike action and its attendant problems in the educational sector of a country makes this phenomenon a matter of enormous concern in Nigeria especially.
The consequence of strike action on educational institution are enormous and of the highest magnitude all over the world. It is a known fact that all over the world that strike action and protest is the oldest and extensive vice that plague an industry in a country.
Strike is as old as any industrial sector and it is a major problem facing civilization.
Strike is a serious problem among educational in Nigeria universities, among academic and non-academic staff, they have chosen to embark on strike action, rather than engage more on academic for the development of their student and for development of their students and for the growth of the country. These problems have promoted research to analyze the causative factors as well as critical looking at strike as it effects to the educational institution society as a whole.
The frequent ASUU strike is always caused by the government, due to their frequent interference on educational and substantive rule agreed upon collectively with the union. These anti-intellectual, anti- universities and anti-student’s polices of Obasanjo’s military regime precipitated the process of destruction of the universities since the 1970’s. The above background information provides an explanation for the crisis in the universities as well as the attitude and policies of Obasanjo regime towards the university over the past four years.
Also the illegal termination of lecturers’ appointment also contributed to the occurrences of strike actions. Example, termination of lecturers appointment of UniLiorin lecturer in (2001) under the Obasanjo civilian regime is not accident neither is his self-imposed yoke of fighting ASUU. But the consequences is the destruction of the Nigeria educational system.
Secondly, poor remuneration of the workers in educational institution in Nigeria happens to be the major problem that causes strike almost all the time, the last three days strike that occurred in LASU, in the month or March 2005 is due to owing of salaries. In essence remuneration refers to salary or wages and all the allowance and financial benefits payable to an employees either in cash or kind in return for his services.
The long ASUU strike that took place at ABU on the 14th October 2003 is due to poor remuration. After all this situation could have been completely avoided if only reason prevailed and dialogue was employed to resolve to issues in dispute. The major point that causes this ASUU strike was
– Payment of the four month salaries (February-May 2003) with held during the suspended natural strike of ASUU (which lasted from 29thDecember 2002 to 18th June 2003).
– Correct implementation of the UASSW as contained in the NUE. Circular of 23rd January 2003, and payments of various arrears if allowance occurred over the period of 2½ years (Since May, 2001).
– Rectification of the truncated steps or annual increment in the salaries of lecturers on UASS 1-4 and payment of arrears.
The steady decline in the Nigerian Universities system and the inevitable corruption in which the system itself is now enveloped Examination Leakages, Course not rackets. Sex for grades amongst other characteristics of the system that no longer prepare students for good citizenship.
Cultism has merely as the violent aspect of a system which no longer serves its basic function. Under finding Universities by the federal and state governments, intervention of public affairs that are not conversant with campus life has been recognized as part of the causes of frequency strike in which universities found themselves.
Universities have been forced to admit more students than can cope with and have frequent been compelled to admit students they would other wise reject
1.3OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of the research is to:
– Asses the extent and the various causative factors, which lead to the prevalence of strike on universities campus.
– To critically analyze the social and psychological factors that influence strike actions.
– Identify when strike is necessary and when it is not necessary.
– To determine the effect of strike on academic activities in Nigeria Universities.
Some fundamental questions that are posed in the course of study are as follows.
– What are the effects of strike action on workers
– Does an increased occurrence of strike action have any significant influence on academic standards?
– What factors lead to strike action on LASU campus?
– Are there any major crises associated with strike action
– What are the socio-economic effects of strike action on the employee?
– What are the efficient ways for managing strike action?
A. – Ho1: Government interference in Universities brings about incessant strike actions.
B. – Ho2: Strike action persists in Nigeria Universities because workers are not well remunerated.
C. – Ho3: Inadequate infrastructure in the Universities system is a cause of strike action by the work force.
1.6SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The research study helps to educate and give overview of the problem of strike action. It will enlighten the general public, the Universities (OJO CAMPUS) community, academic staff, student and government on strike action as a phenomenon. The study will also provide useful information for policy planners, mangers, employers, workers as well as general public.
The finding of the study will also be useful to scholar and students.
1.7SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The major concern of this study is to determine and to know why workers are involved in strike action, its merit and demerits, its role in the service and how it achieves it aims, it definitions, causes and the extern of strike actions on our society, this is necessary because it leads us to the conditions under strike can take place which specific reference to Lagos State Universities (ONO CAMPUS).
1.8DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
ANTAGONISTIC: – A person who show or feels opposition
BARRICADED: A barrier made from the nearest available object and placed across something as a defense or an obstacle.
PRICE HIKE: An increased in the cost of something.
EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION: Place where relevant ideals, knowledge, value and skill and training of individuals.
RECALCITRANT: Resisting authority or discipline.
STANDARD: A special level of quality
SOLIDARITY: Unity, agreement and support result from shared interest, feeling, actions and sympathizers e.t.c.
SYSTEM: – A group of things or parts working together as a whole
STRIKE: Refusal to work by an employee at a particular period of time.