1.1 Background to the Study
In this globalizing environment, teachers are faced with greater expectations because of changes in society and technology (Moeini, 2008). The National Commission on Excellence in Education (1983) reported that “our once unchallenged preeminence in commerce, industry, science, and technological innovation is being overtaken by competitors throughout the world” (p. 9) and American students are falling behind those in other countries and highlighted the need for educational reforms. Review of this literature highlights the significance of determining agriculture education teachers’ perceptions about teaching agriculture in the 21st century and their in-service training needs for preparing them to be effective educators in the 21st century.
Change is more rapid and inevitable than ever before due to globalization and technology (Sweat, 2010). We all are affected by the current trends in globalization (Smith, Jayaratne, Moore, Kistler, & Smith, 2010). Globalization is a changing force that shapes governments, businesses, organizations and individuals (Lundy, Place, Irani, & Telg, 2005). A report by the Students in the 21st century come to school with a very different set of experiences and expectations than the students in the 20th century. These students are more attuned to digital communication technology than their teachers (Blackboard, 2008). Determining the skills necessary for students to be successful in the 21st century is a challenging task. The University of Melbourne in Australia initiated the Assessment and Teaching of 21st Century Skills (ATC21S, 2010) project with the participation of 250 renowned professionals from 60 institutions worldwide to determine the skills necessary for students to be successful in the 21st century and developed a white paper identifying 21st century skills. There are ten skills grouped into four categories in this white paper.
Unprecedented developments in instructional technology and contents brought significant changes in the realm of education, particularly in teacher education. A working teacher needs to be updated and refresh with reference to his knowledge and professional skills which are imparted through the training. Every society devises the in-Service training for this purpose.
Academics dictionary of education (2002, p. 158) described the in-service training of teachers as; Job related instruction and educational experiences are available to employees. In-service training programs are usually offered during normal working hours. Activities designed to improve the knowledge and skills of employees and the quality of services, especially the instructional practices. In-service training is directed at those individuals who are basically qualified and employed by school systems. It can be presented in variety of formats.
With new additions of ideas, concepts and activates. In-service Training improves the overall personality of a teacher and enables them how to respect personality. In-service training (INSET) improves the aspects In-service teacher training enhances the performance of a teacher. A teacher feels enrichment with new additions of ideas, concepts and activates. In-service Training improves the overall personality of a teacher and enables them how to respect personality.
In-service training (INSET) improves the aspects of overall performance of a teacher. It is necessary for a teacher to update his/her profession. Sharif (1960, p. 78) has discussed it in the following words; In-service education of teachers refreshes all those techniques, activities and learning experiences which are organized to increase their professional effectiveness….. In-service education activities may be of different types; group or individual, formal or non-informal. These may range from regular courses of study, educational workshops, lectures, discussions, interviews and supervision of individual study of the professional literature by teachers themselves.
For in-service training programs to be effective and efficiency on teaching, it is better to identify training needs among classroom teachers. Sabri (1997), argues that teachers from different school levels may need different training programs. The content and the competencies included in the courses of in-service training programs should be different in some aspects to reflect the experience of teachers. Lazaroa and Prokopova (2004), state that participants of in-service training should be able to create ideas about the opportunities of their professional development, the options of further education and the criteria of efficiency evaluation.
Implementation of SEDP results to rapid expansion of secondary education including establishment of community secondary schools. Different categories of teachers are used to teach such as professional, license and Para professional (untrained) teachers. Those teachers work in different environment and they experience different challenges in teaching and learning process. A training needs assessment is therefore required in order to establish what relevant competences already exist and which ones need to be imparted. This study intended to identify in-service training needs for affective teaching in secondary schools.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Nigeria has more teachers than any country in Africa, there are about one hundred higher institution where teachers are trained both teacher training college, colleges of education and universities but with all this teaching and learning process is not effective. This can be caused by either lack of pedagogical skills, academic knowledge or both. Omari (1995), argues that teachers who lack any teacher training tend to have insufficient knowledge of what they have to teach to make it stimulating to their pupils and in some cases, lack of knowledge causes them to teach incorrect facts. Introduction to Critical Practitioner Inquiry (2007), explain that difficulty of the topics and limited academic professional competence among some teachers are among of the challenges in teaching and learning process.
Also poor training during pre-service course in teachers’ colleges limits their ability of creating conducive teaching and learning environment. Vuzo (2008), argues that under-qualified teachers who are poorly trained in the colleges is one of the challenges in secondary education provision. Every job has knowledge and skills appropriate to the task. Once anyone realizes that he cannot do a job properly, he needs further training therefore he is half way to identify his training needs. Galabawa (2006), a training needs assessment is therefore required in order to establish what relevant competencies already exist and which ones need to be imparted.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objectives of this study is to find out the in service training needed by teachers for effective teaching in secondary school, specifically the study intends:
1. Find out the needed in service training needed for teachers
2. Find out teachers’ professional knowledge/competence related to teaching in secondary schools
3. Find out the challenges teachers are faced with and their influence on effective teaching and learning
4. Examine the effect of in service training on teaching performance of teachers
1.4 Research Questions
1. What are the needed in service training needed for teachers?
2. Does the teacher’s has any professional knowledge/competence related to teaching in secondary schools?
3. What are the challenges teachers are faced with and their influence on effective teaching and learning?
4. Is there any significant effect of in service training on teaching performance of teachers?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
Ho: there is no significant effect of in service training on teaching performance of teachers
Hi: there is significant effect of in service training on teaching performance of teachers
1.6 Significance of the Study
The result of this study will be helpful to various stake holders of secondary education. First; the Ministry of Education will be exposed with difficulties which secondary school teachers face in teaching and learning process and it will be easy to design appropriate in-service training program. Second; the Ministry of Education can develop or reform teacher education curriculum in consideration of contents, methods and skills which are relevant and are needed by teachers currently. Third; NGOs interested in promoting quality secondary education can design and support in-service training to secondary school teachers. Fourth; the training managers can be able to set the training objectives with an accurate identification of participants and types of in-service training needed. Fifth; school management can reduce or eliminate performance gaps through other management solutions such as communicating expectations or providing a supportive working environment.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This research work will cover five secondary schools in Ilorin, the capital of Kwara state. Teachers in the schools will be selected for this research.
1.8 Delimitation of the Study
Finance for the general research work will be a challenge during the course of study. Correspondents also might not be able to complete or willing to submit the questionnaires given to them.
However, it is believed that these constraints will be worked on by making the best use of the available materials and spending more than the necessary time in the research work. Therefore, it is strongly believed that despite these constraint, its effect on this research report will be minimal.