Project Topics

Production And Acceptability Studies Of Malted Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor) Biscuit

TABLE OF
CONTENTS

Title
Page                                                                               

Approval
Page                                                                       

Dedication                                                                              

Acknowledgement                                                                  

 Abstract                                                                                

Table
Of Contents                                                                  

CHAPTER ONE

1.0           
Introduction

1.1     Objectives of the study

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.0           
Literature Review

2.1     Origin of Sorghum

2.2           
Sorghum Utilization

2.2.1   
Production of Malted Sorghum Flour

2.2.2   
Malted of Sorghum

2.2.3   
Steeping

2.2.4   
Germination

2.2.5   
Kilning

2.3           
Method of Processing Wheat into
Flour for Biscuit Making

2.3.1   
Wheat Flour Production

2.3.2   
Effects of Processing of
Nutritional Value of wheat Flour

2.3.3   
Functional Processing of
Nutritional Value of Wheat Flour

2.4.0      
Ginger

2.4.1      
The History of Ginger

2.4.2      
Ginger Cultivation

2.4.3      
Spices and Other Oils

2.4.4      
Ginger Processing

2.4.5      
Uses of Ginger

2.4.6      
Nutritional Composition

2.5.0      
Biscuit

2.5.1      
Definition of Biscuit

2.5.2      
Classification of Biscuits

2.5.3      
Hard Dough Biscuits

2.5.4      
Lean Hard Dough Biscuits

2.5.5      
Medium Hard Dough Biscuits

2.5.6      
Puff Hard Biscuits

2.5.7      
Lean Batter Biscuits

2.5.8      
Highly Enriched Biscuits

2.5.9      
Proximate Composition of Biscuits

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0           
Materials and Method

3.1     Sources of Raw Materials

3.2           
Raw Materials for Baking

3.3           
Equipment

3.4           
Chemicals

3.5           
Method for Processing Malted
Sorghum

3.6           
Biscuit Production

3.6.1   
Proximate Analysis of the Prepared
Biscuits

3.6.2   
 Protein Determination

3.6.3   
Fat Determination

3.6.4   
Moisture Determination

3.6.5   
Total Ash Determination

3.6.6   
Carbohydrate Determination

3.6.7   
Sensory Evaluation of Prepared
Samples

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0           
Results and Discussions

4.1     Proximate Composition of the Test Biscuits

4.2           
Sensory Evaluation

4.3           
Discussion

 

CHAPTER FIVE

          Conclusion and Recommendation

          References

          Appendix

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

Biscuit may be defined as a thin flat baked product made from
flour, salt, sweetening agent fat and preservatives. They are crisps,
unleavened and sometimes sweet pastry produced light by the addition – F baking
powder or soda, sometimes with chocolate or fruit in put (Achukoh; 1992).
Biscuit can also be defined as a baked product having not less than 8% of flour
content calculated (Hannemah, 1981). Okaka, 1997 stated that biscuits are
termed “cookies” in USA but the Word biscuit means a small cake like bun.

          According to Terrell, 1981 there are
basically some ingredients that are used for biscuit production such as sugar,
salt, milk, shortening flavour leavening. Egg improves the volume of biscuit as
well as the taste and flavour. Egg and butter are also used for variety, these
improves the quality of the products.

Wheat flour is a critical and principal raw material in
biscuit production its. Superiority over other cereals is due to the presence
of gluten which inherently imparts all 
the essential qualities to their products. The absence of this simple
protein in non-wheat flour makes them unsuitable as substitutes for wheat
flour. Unfortunately, wheat is a temperature crop, there fore, our tropical
climate does not favour its cultivation. Flour which has high gluten content
are classified as a strong hard flour, and therefore produces a strong dough
and thus a strong biscuit is produced (Richtea), while flour with small gluten
content produces a soft I weak biscuit (Digestive) Aerating chemicals, syrups
and water were further added as one of the basis ingredients for biscuit making
(Achukoh; 1992). The production of biscuits involves weighing, mixing, dough
formation, kneading and rolling out, machining and shaping, prickling Bakino,
cooling and packaging (Okaka, 1997).

The malting potentials of sorghum grains can be utilized to
produce soft dough biscuit. Germinated sorghum grains, develop alpha – amylase,
carboxy peptidase, endo – beta – 1, 3 – glucanase, pentosanase, limit
dextrinase and endo – protease in the grain during malting. Malting involves
essentially steeping, germination and limiting cereals, seedling growth by
kilning. During germination enzymes are produced for the degradation of starch
and protein in the cereal grain. Malting yields higher proportions of
hydrolytic enzymes such as X and B – amylases which may be either completely
soluble or largely insoluble depending on the variety.

Malted sorghum and wheat flour are used in order to check the
baking potential of biscuit, malts produce from sweet sorghum and related
variety usually contain insoluble amylase. The insoluble substances that make
aqueous extraction impossible (Amori, 1 9 8 7) – Glucosidase in sorghum malt is
also highly insoluble malt solid (Barry, and Dorota 1988).

Malting causes a decrease in the density of caryposis in
sorghum grain (Isola, 1992). Lower the amount of lysine from 0.25% in unmalted
sorghum to 0.18% in sorghum malt (Ilori, 1989) and reduces the milling energy
(Swanstoo et al, 1994).

Time and temperature of storage influence the percentage
soluble amylase in sorghum grain. For example, sorghum grain stored at 12t 23oc
temperature for 2 to 3 years give higher levels of soluble amylase (between 57
– 73%) while nearly harvested grain give about 25%. Lowering the temperature to
7oc reduces the level of soluble amylase in the level of soluble
amylase in the grains to about 37% after 3 years (Novellie et al, 1973).

AIMS AND
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

To evaluate the acceptability of the biscuit made from malted
sorghum and wheat flour blend and to reduce cost of production manufacturers,
so as to break even and make gain.

Malted sorghum flour
has blended with wheat flour in the preparation of some confectioneries will go
a long way in reducing he country’s heavy reliance on imported wheat and
conserve the Nation Foreign Exchange