Productivity is inadequate and at the same time fragmented. In first instance, people tend to define productivity in terms of efficiency and effectiveness. Others relate it to the concept of performance measured by comparing the ratio of output obtained from a given input such as labour, equipment, capital or land.
The opinion that productivity as a concept is better defined using three approaches: The status-centred, cost conscious and the output centred approaches. The first approach sees productivity as “the amount of human and material resources at the disposal of decision-makers”. The second considers it as a “conscious allocation and utilization of’ resources (material) in a judicious manner”. The last approach sees productivity as “the units of goods produced as well as the number of’ political decisions taken”.
The problems surrounding the conceptualization of productivity have been adequately pointed out in this research work.
The development of a country depends on the quantity and quality of its resources, the state of technology and the efficient deployment of resources in both the production and consumption processes. In the 1960s economists; such as Frederick Harbison reconsidered and re-evaluated the role human play in the development process. Man is the dynamic factor of production. His energies, skills, knowledge and ingenuity are applied to the exploitation of raw materials and the production of final goods and services.
The Nigerian labour force is dynamic, its size, and composition have been gradually changing. The dimensions of the labour force are determined by demographic factors, including the size of the population and its sex.-age composition, as well as socioeconomic factors which influence labour force participation rates.
According to Morris (2007) for any organization to be effective and efficient, adequate supply of manpower for optimum productivity must be available to carry out the operations of that organization, it, thus implies that manpower requirements of any organisation is necessary. The integration of these would help the company in forecasting the future manpower needs of the firm as regards skilled and unskilled, train its personnel to suit the company’s goals while at the same time helping each individual to reach his goal(s).
However, Ogunbiyi (2006) viewed that the main problem facing most firm today, especially indigenous company is that of inadequate manpower planning. Though there is the general assumption that both skilled and unskilled labour are abundant in the country, but the question being asked is how can the work force be effectively plan to increase organizational productivity. The poser lies in the company’s objectives and personnel policies.
Similarly, Akinyele (2002) sees manpower planning as function that concerns itself with having the right persons in the right place at the right time. The process involves the development of policies and programme, which will ensure that manpower-· planning meet the need of National plan of any establishment.
From the discussions above, ·it· is clear that manpower planning and productivity involves the determination of staff shortfall and therefore identification of training/ recruitment needs. This helps ill giving direction of human resources development programmes of an organization especially in terms of career planning, succession plan and general organizational development. Having regard to this, it is apparent that manpower planning must be put on overall strategic planning of an organization, to enhance productivity it must be integrated with the business objective for organizational effectiveness to be achieved.
In order to achieve present national goals and development objectives, Nigerian administrators increasingly emphasize that the development of human resources must be left random with market forces, but should be planned so as to cooperate efficiently with other factors of production. The purpose of manpower planning and productivity includes the elimination of labour resources and the development of suitable educational programmes to develop essentials labour skills.
1.1 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Most business failure today can be blamed on lack of foresight on the parts of those committed to making strategic planning, setting of corporate goals and objectives, implementing and controlling them. This serious ailment is prevalent in the policy maker of various organizations of today.
Manpower planning otherwise known as Human Resources Planning is an integral part of the overall planning of an organization. Just as an organisation budgets for the amount of money to be spent so must manpower requirements of the organization be planned for.
Awareness of promotional prospects and advancement contributes a lot to job satisfaction. Young supervisor and executive will not “attempt leaving their job if they are aware that they will soon become managers, managing directors. This level of achievement will go a long way in motivating workers to stick to their job which will invariably increases organizational productivity. For any corporate organization to succeed therefore, it must have an indepth of its market and manpower planning in order to achieve its stated objectives. It is therefore to be noted that this study is being undertaking because of the reasons aforementioned which are mainly economical.
1.2 OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The main aim of this research is to determine corporate organizational productivity and effective utilization of worker to avoid high rate of turnover other objectives includes:
a) To examine the optimum use of human resources currently employed.
b) To provide for future manpower needs of the organisation, quantitatively and qualitatively in term of skills, number and ages.
1.3 HYPOTHESIS FORMULATION
The following hypothesis were tested:
i. Ho: That there is no relationship between manpower planning and organizational productivity.
Hi: That there is a direct relationship between manpower planning and organizational productivity.
ii. Ho: That manpower planning does not have effect on the competitiveness of an organisation.
Hi: That manpower planning had been an effective tool against competitiveness of an organisation.
In the course of this research work, three sources of data were utilized.
(b) Personal interviews
(c) Secondary sources
A form of questionnaire was designed and distributed to the respondent who were encouraged to complete and return immediately.
Personal interview was also conducted to supplement the questionnaire disseminated. Face-to-face interaction between the researcher and the respondents made it possible for certain questions that could not be included in the questionnaire to be asked and answered. This method helped in collecting more information for the project.
The sources of secondary data include examination of all secondary information available on the study, previous and existing researchers and other related sources such as post research work, were examined.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The research is aimed at enhancing orgl1l”ilizational productivity and effective manpower planning practice.
The findings will therefore be useful to:
(a) The existing manpower organisation as well as those yet to be established.
(b) The management who can know the importance of placing their human resources ahead before they become manageable.
(c) Finally, members of public with discipline, professions and background who may like to know more about manpower planning as a function of personnel department will find-the study work necessary and useful.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
No doubt manpower planning helps a firm to reach and satisfy its manpower better and has also allow the firm to make effective use of its optimal resources.
The research work will cover the bases and the nature for manpower planning, the correlation· of the concept to the company productivity volume, the impact of the manpower planning on competitive trend of the firm and the information to be gathered will be limited to the management and as well as staff of Nigeria Ports Authority.
It is evident that research of this nature are often be associated with a lot of problems. The project encountered some problem of sampling, errors in questionnaires administration may arise by non-response, poor selection of respondents and subjectivity arising from interviewer and respondents interaction.
Other constraints included factors such as financial setback, time factor to move round in carrying out the research, high cost-of materials and transportation problems.
1.7 ORGANIZATION OF’STUDY
For a better understanding, this project has been divided into five chapters;
Chapter one includes the introduction, background of study statement of problem, significance of study, research questions, hypothesis, scope of study, methodology, limitations and organisation of study.
Chapter two treats theoretical framework and literature review of the subject matter.
Chapter three deals with research methodology.
Chapter four is on research findings and analysis.
Chapter five consists of summary of findings, recommendations and conclusion.