Project Topics

QUALITY FACTORS AFFECTING ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background to the Study

In this era of globalization and technological revolution, education is considered as a first step for every human activity. It plays a vital role in the development of human capital and is linked with an individual’s well-being and opportunities for better living (Battle & Lewis, 2002). It ensures the acquisition of knowledge and skills that enable individuals to increase their productivity and improve their quality of life. This increase in productivity also leads towards new sources of earning which enhances the economic growth of a country (Saxton, 2000). The quality of students’ performance remains at top priority for educators. It is meant for making a difference locally, regionally, nationally and globally. Educators, trainers, and researchers have long been interested in exploring variables contributing effectively for quality of performance of learners. These variables are inside and outside school that affect students’ quality of academic performance. These factors may be termed as student factors, family factors, school factors and peer factors (Crosnoe, Johnson & Elder, 2004). The formal investigation about the role of these demographic factors rooted back in 17th century (Mann, 1985). Generally these factors include age, gender, geographical belongingness, ethnicity, marital status, socioeconomic status (SES), parents’ education level, parental profession, language, income and religious affiliations. These are usually discussed under the umbrella of demography (Ballatine, 1993). In a broader context demography is referred to as a way to explore the nature and effects of demographic variables in the biological and social context. Unfortunately, defining and measuring the quality of education is not a simple issue and the complexity of this process increases due to the changing values of quality attributes associated with the different stakeholders’ view point (Blevins, 2009; Parri, 2006).

Quality is at the top of most agenda of any sector or organization. Ways to improve the quality of education is very much the important task facing any education institution. Quality education has its significant impact and invaluable contributions to manpower development. Students therefore have the right to education of good quality, hence, the training of inspectors in quality system to be able to work with schools to achieve the expected standard (Oyetola, Kayode & Okunuga, 2012).  However, inspectors work with the school in the following areas: performance and standard, learners’ welfare and participation, personal development, quality of teaching and learning, quality of curriculum and other activities, care/guidance and support, learning environment, leadership and management, overall effectiveness of the school, what school does well and what school should do to improve its perform (Oyetola, Kayode & Okunuga, 2012). Therefore, education should be monitored and evaluated before, during and after provision to make sure standard are maintained. Thus, school inspection is an important instrument for the Government to assure that there is good performance in secondary schools. This makes it important that the School Inspectorate conducts their duties in an efficient and effective way (CAG, 2008).

The use of Quality Assurance management system has become popular in the administrative world. The days of quality control practice in industries are over, quality assurance has taken over. In the education industry, the worth of any educational system is based on its ability to produce quality output (students) that can contribute to the development of the society. It is then the function of the education managers to identify and solve problems that may work against quality delivery of education. (Oyetola et al 2012).

According to Ayeni, & Adelabu, (2012), there is actually a general belief that the condition of school’s learning environment including infrastructure has an important impact on teachers’ effectiveness and students’ academic performance. The facilities that are needed to facilitate effective teaching and learning in an educational institution include the classrooms, offices, libraries, laboratories, conveniences and other buildings as well as furniture items and sporting equipment. The quality of infrastructure and learning environment has strong influence on the academic standard which is an index of quality factors in the school.

1.2     Statement of the Problem

There are set up principles and quality standards by the education ministry to meet educational objectives of any country. Which is why secondary schools need to have enough teachers, classrooms, teaching and learning materials and other facilities. Apart from having these, there are bodies of assessing the schools to make sure they meet quality as stipulated in the contract or aims of establishing the schools. The existing situations in secondary schools such as lack of teachers, shortage of teaching and learning materials, lack of laboratory, libraries and others quality factors make difficult for good academic performance in the secondary school. A number of public schools have no libraries and there is an acute shortage of textbooks to the extent that you can find one book being shared among twenty students. This leaves the teacher the sole source of information. This might result in producing students of a limited educational ability. In addition, school inspectors do not take measures to schools which run with shortage of teachers, teaching and learning materials and other facilities. May be because school inspection has not been effective as expected due to inadequate competent personnel, shortage or lack of transport, offices and office equipment, housing, and the ability of the inspectors to take appropriate and immediate corrective measures where necessary, therefore there is always issue of poor academic performance among the secondary school students, which is as a result of not providing adequate resources or meeting up with the required standard quality set for the sector. Given the above scenario one would not doubt about the quality factors measures that are in place in those schools which perform this way. To know which specific quality factors that affect the academic performance of the learners in those schools; there is a need of doing investigation to establish which factors and how they affect the academic performance of the secondary schools as well as suggesting how the quality practice can be improved in those schools. Knowing these factors will help the policy makers and administrators to improve the quality factors in schools for better quality education in secondary schools. Therefore, this study intended to investigate the quality factors that affect the academic performance of students

1.3     Objectives of the Study

The main objectives of this study is to find out the quality factors affecting academic performance of students in secondary schools, specifically the study intends to:

1.     Find out the quality factors that affects academic performance of students

2.     Analyze the effect of quality factors on academic performance of students in secondary schools

3.     To establish quality factors strategies the schools need to put in place to realize good students’ academic performance of students

4.     To examine the challenges impeding quality education in Nigeria

1.4     Research Questions

1.     Find out the quality factors that affects academic performance of students

2.     Analyze the effect of quality factors on academic performance of students in secondary schools

3.     To establish quality factors strategies the schools need to put in place to realize good students’ academic performance of students

4.     To examine the challenges impeding quality education in Nigeria

1.4     Research Questions

1.     What are the quality factors that affects academic performance of students?

2.     Is there any effect of quality factors on academic performance of students in secondary schools?

3.     What are the quality factors strategies the schools needs to put in place to realize good students’ academic performance of students?

4.     Are there challenges impeding quality education in Nigeria?

1.5     Research Hypothesis

Ho: there is no effect of quality factors on academic performance of students in secondary schools

Hi: there is effect of quality factors on academic performance of students in secondary schools