1.1 BACKGROUND TO PROBLEM
The successive development plans of Nigeria have laid emphasis on the attainment of self reliance. The need for this national objective is because much is expected from individuals from the view point of providing employment opportunities self reliance in basic food and material production high per capital income, foreign exchange earnings and the production of industrial raw materials.
Okporobie (1989:10) observes that Nigeria small scale industries continued to decline despite the so called priority given to the sector
However, the discovery by the central bank that this policy was not enough by it self led to the central bank request with effect from 1970/80 that all commercial bank must reserve a proportion of the minimum credit allocation to indigenous borrowers for small scale Nigeria enterprises. The target prescribed in 1979 was ten percent (10%) which subsequently raised to sixteen percent (16%).
Even though available data showed that performance of commercial banks against this directive has been disappointing. The central bank intends to spare no effort in ensuring that banks fully couple without compromising the smooth functioning of the nation banning system.
He observed also, that without the development of small scale industries in Nigeria, the nations quest for industrialization will certainly remain forever at stake. It is the opinion of the researcher that future development in our industrialization must address the basic issues of creating linkages without the economy to begin to produce real inputs to our manufacturing activities .
Priority attention must therefore be given to these industries for which domestic inputs could easily be produced. This will bring about agro-allied industries like food processing and other by-products.
The objective should be to maximize the value added in their processing and manufacturing as final goods immediately inputs.
Nzewi and Oze (1985:56) observed that empirical evidence indicates that strong producer incentives to small scale industrialists are necessary not also only to meet the food requirement but also to provide growing input supplies and demand as a foundation for sustained industrial growth.
The present economic constraint may well turn out to be a blessing in disguise to our industrialization effect particularly for dynamic manufacturing sector. For instance, the market determinate exchange rate through seeing with its result and high cost of imported inputs may serve as an impetus for industrialist to intensify their search for local substitutes.
Ekenyong and Nyong (1992) observed that small scale enterprises are regarded an organic part of a viable structure for the attainment meaningful economy development in developing economic like Nigeria.
They are significantly more cost effective in bringing about development than large enterprises because of the perceived linkage and multiplier effects which small scale enterprises have on the performance of the economy and economic growth in general.
Osayameh (1989) observes that the strength that make small scale enterprises more amendable for assistance areas as follows.
1. Personal commitment of the proprietor whose life savings usually form the start up capital.
2. Low initial capital out lay requirement
3. Ease of entry and exit and prevalence of just minimal legal constraints
4. Amenability to business advisory services because of their small size which makes than more responsive to improvement suggestions.
Olashore (1987) Observes that the four main sources of enterprises financing open to small scale industry in Nigeria are.
i. Formal financial institutions such as commercial banks merchant banks, insurance companies and the development bank.
ii. Informal financial landlords, credit and savings associations “esus” friends and relations personal savings and .
iii. Other financial scheme, NERFUND NEXIM
in 2001, there was an introduction of small and medium industries equity investment scheme (SMIEIS) in which N359 million was set aside to date by banks under small medium industries equity investment scheme.
Through union bank small and medium scale enterprises (SMES) department, the bank has remain ed in fore front of SMES financing nations was extended to the SMES as at 31st March 2004.
Small scale industry is any industry not exceeding N750,000 including working capital but excluding cost of land.
It is also defined by center for industrial research and development of Obafemi Awolowo university Ile Ife as those industries whose total assets in plant, equipment and working capital do not exceed N250,000 with not more than 50 employees.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The problem of credit to small scale industries may not necessarily be as a result of financing insufficiency but rather for some other reasons among which are.
i. Insufficient preparation on the part of small scale entrepreneurs in their request for credit assistance.
ii. Information gaps as to range of funding institutions and scope of services available in these institution
iii. Moreover, servicing of small business accounts is relatively experience, risky and difficult to monitor with low turn over of account.
However, the parishioners in the sector small scale industry do not display competence in preparing justification for their project. It is are to see most of them coming up with cash flow projections, projected balance sheets, among others. They are based on personal rudimentary in formation and speculation. At times when they seek the advice of consultants, the outcome that are made figures project based on assumptions which are most of their time unrealistic.
As a result such proposals are out rightly rejected by banks.
There are suitable when credit demands in this sector are not in compliance in this government monetary policy and credit guidelines which must be adhered to by banks.
The researcher identifies these problem and considers it necessary to carry our study on them.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objectives of the study include:
a. To ascertain the extent to which the union bank of Nigeria plc has helped to finance small scale industries.
b. To identify the problems encountered by small scale industrialists in obtaining finance from union bank of Nigeria plc.
c. To evaluate various measures introduced to boost industrial production and its financing and how this has affected realization of the set goals.
d. To determine the causing changes in small scale industrial financing by union bank of Nigeria plc.
e. To make suggestion and recommendations based on the data generated by the study.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The critical appraisal to give answers to the following questions.
a. To what extent has union bank of Nigeria plc helped to finance small scale industries?
b. What are the problems encountered by the small scale industrialists in obtaining finance from union bank if Nigeria plc?
c. What are the various measures introduced to boost industrial production and its financing and how this has affected the realization of the set goals?
d. What are the causes of changes in small scale industrial financing by union bank of Nigeria plc?
e. Does any linear relationship exist between lending to small scale industries and economic recovery and self reliance on the economy?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
a. There is no linear relationship between lending to small scale industries and economic recovery and self-reliance of the economy.
b. there is no relationship between union bank of Nigeria plc lending to small scale industries and the attitude of this customers
1.6 SCOPE OF STUDY
The scope of the study is the role of commercial banks in financing small scale industries in Nigeria. A case study of union bank of Nigeria plc. It does not cover the role of commercial banks in financing medium and large scale industries.
1.7 LIMITATION OF STUDY
However, there wee constraint imposed on the researcher this includes the following.
a. Time a study of this nature, needs a relatively long time during which information for accurate or at least near accurate inferences could be drawn. The period of the study was short, hence time posed as a constraint to the researcher.
b. Cost: The researcher would have extent the survey to areas. But limitations here included cost of transportation to source for materials and cost of type setting the already completed work.
c. Dearth (Scarcity) of statistical data:
lack of statistical data from our financial institutions like central bank of Nigeria (CBN) ministry of financial and economic development, commercial and merchant bank posed a constraints.
Commercial banks adhere strictly to the rule of secret, in banking thus they refused to released information.
1.8 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will highlight problems associated with the role of commercial banks in financing small scale industry in Nigeria.
It will give information on the possible areas for improvement.
Furthermore, the study will help commercial banks to assess and appraisal their role in financing small scale industry in Nigeria.
Moreover, suggestions and recommendations made in this paper will help policy makers formulate new economic policies maintain or modify the existing one.
It will equally serve as a guideline to researchers who may wish too decide with this study in the future.
It will also help small scale entrepreneurs to make sufficient preparation in their request for credit assistance.
It will guide the entrepreneurs in making credits demands that are compliance with government monetary policy.
The last but not the least it will help the entrepreneurs to displayed competence in preparing justification for their project. It is rear to see most of them coming up with cash projections, projected balance sheets.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Any industry with capital not exceeding N750,000 including capital but excluding cost of land.
It is also defined by center for industrial research and development of Obafemi Awolowo University Ile Ife as those industries whose total assess in plant equipment and working capital do not exceed N250,000 with not more than 50 employees.
2. COMMERCIAL BANK
a financial institution that acquires deposit from savings surplus unit and give out loans to savings deficit units.
3. INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT CENTER:
Provide management, technical, consultancy and extension services for the small scale.
4. INDIGENISATION DECREE:
A decree that stipulates that most business become, at least 60 percent owned by Nigerians.
5. SOLE PROPRIETORSHIP:
Is a business owned and conducted by one person presumably assisted by one or more persons for intakes wife and children.
SS/CS small scale industry credit scheme.
Agbo O.G (2000) Small scale Business Management
Okobie M.N (1989) Banks Role to Small Scale Business. Business Time
Nzewi U.C. and Ozo . E.O (1985) Strategies for Nigeria Economic Recovery Oko, Anambra Polytechnic Press.
Epkpenyong D.B and Nyong M.O (1992) Small Scale Enterprises Development in Nigeria Seminar Paper on Economic Policy Research for Policy Action and Management in Nigeria.
Ojo A.T (1992) Bank and Small Business Lagos F and t Publisher LTD
Olashore O.(1987): Banks Loans to Small Scale industries Lagos Macmillan Publishers.