1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The primary purpose of any library is to support the parent institution with the provision of adequate and current information and material resources in order to support the academic curriculum. With the growth in library collections, and technological advancement in information handling and retrieving techniques, it is necessary to guide students and other library users on the accessibility and retrieval of those information resources. In order to ensure that students have the intellectual abilities and skills to retrieve information as well as construct a framework for learning, the university library makes provision for library instruction, which is also referred to as “user education”, “instructional program”, “teaching the use of library and information sources”, among others. Thus, effective library instruction will enhance information retrieval and use of library information resources. With the influx of scholarly and scientific publications, libraries and librarians are involved in the acquisition, processing, preservation and dissemination of information resources in various formats. Literature however shows that the amount of information available today is too large to be accessed easily. Users therefore, must be able to sift and select relevant information. The act of information selection is not possible without sufficient knowledge and skills and there cannot be a good connection between the students and the library without adequate library instruction to students who may not have visited, or had prior knowledge of how to use library resources. Thus, user instruction is necessary for the best use of information resources especially, in library and information centers.
Two thirds of those surveyed stated that if the CD-ROM was busy, they would wait for it to become free rather than use the print tool. However, a study of online searching of scientific information in science and technology libraries of Delhi reveals a sizeable number of users (almost 60%) are facing numerous problems while browsing electronic information, such as lack of knowledge about the resources, lack of trained staff and inadequate terminals, (Ali , 2005). Studies have also been carried out on the use of electronic resources by teachers, students and research scholars of universities and research organizations. Seventy-eight percent (78%) of the respondents feel that the use of the UGC – Infonet e-journals has created high dependency value on their research work and they needed current article alert services and electronic document supply services (Madhusudhan, 2008). In the context of developing countries, Okello-Obura and Magara (2008) investigated electronic information access and utilization at the East African School of Library and Information Science, Makerere University, Uganda. Out of the 250 targeted students, 190 responded, giving a response rate of 76%. The study revealed that users derive a lot of benefits from electronic resources by gaining access to a wider range of information and improved academic performance as a result of access to quality information. In the Ghanaian context, Dadzie (2007) writes that electronic resources are invaluable research tools that complement the print – based resources in a traditional library setting. Their advantages, according to her include: access to information that might be restricted to the user due to geographical location or finances, access to more current information, and provision of extensive links to additional resources related contents. Chisenga (2004) carried out a survey of the use of ICTs in ten African Public Library Services. The survey found that, although most libraries had internet connectivity, very few were offering web-based information services to their users. The study however, identifies four barriers to the effective provision of electronic resources in those libraries, namely: lack of strategic planning: lack of adequate or reliable funding; lack of use of Internet to provide information services to users and a lack of consistent training for users in new ICT services.
Anyadike (2000) established a relationship between library use and students’ academic achievement. His study revealed that students perform better when they frequently use the school Library than when they do not. Bresciani, M. J., Gardner, M. M., & Hickmott, J. (2012) asserted that American higher education is facing a distinct shift that compels the need for assessment. Similarly, other studies have examined the association between library use, student learning, and student engagement; for example, Laird, and Kuh, (2005).) found that participation in information and library-related activities (for example, using the library website to find academic resources, asking librarians for help, etc.) were positively and moderately correlated with student engagement in other areas; namely, participation in information technology was associated with factors the researchers labeled as active and collaborative learning (for example, working with other students on class projects, working with other students outside of class, etc.). According to Nicholson, (2003), some researchers have examined the association between library use and students’ academic performance; however, many of those studies present limitations due to their age or limitations in sample sizes. Additionally, many libraries do not collect data related to students’ use of services to protect library user privacy; consequently, the lack of data collection leads to a shortage of studies examining the association between library use and student outcome. School counselors can improve the nature of the achievement climate in their schools. They can also draw from a vast array of interventions that will help students increase their academic achievement (Brown, 2009). The roles of school counselors are paramount in students’ use of Library. For instance, the school counselors are regarded as experts who are deep rooted in changing the negative characters of individuals to better and bring about change in behaviors through the application of guidance and counseling techniques (Anyanwu, 2004).
Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI), instructional television (ITV), and programmed instruction (PI) can be counted as early examples of the application of information technology to education. The most recent and perhaps most visible cases are web-based training programs and degree granting programs from fully accredited institutions offered via what is known as “distance learning.” Technology succeeds, when it becomes commonplace. This is amply illustrated by such mundane and ubiquitous artifacts as chalkboards, training films and videos, overhead projectors and transparencies, software such as Microsoft, PowerPoint, and perhaps the most common of all, the textbook. Teaching and learning can both be defined as processes‚ that is, as bounded portions of larger streams of activity. The teacher does one and the learner does the other. Teaching might or might not lead to learning (Baer, 2009). The relationship between the two processes is neither fixed nor guaranteed. However, Wenger (2008) has observed that teaching and learning are not inherently linked. More importantly, teaching and instructional materials are resources for learning in ways that often differ from those embedded in pedagogical intentions. For example, reading assignments in a course on literature can result in learning on the part of students that has nothing whatsoever to do with the teacher’s instructional objectives. In other words, what is taught and what is learned may differ.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Over the years, Nigeria’s falling standard of education and dwindling literacy rate have gained incredible attention, yet the political leaders have not taken any effective action to improve the situation. Doubtlessly, there is no shortage of opinion about what to do to improve the quality of education in Nigeria. The nation’s educational institutions are defective; they are not equipped for quality education, especially in this generation of digitalization. Basically, not all higher institutions in Nigeria are networked (connected to the internet), perhaps, this has been because of the huge cost involved or neglect. Most of the students admitted to higher institutions in Nigeria are computer illiterates; therefore they cannot benefit from the advantages or rewards E-library throws at them, hence, reduced or low level of learning achievement. In view of the aforementioned problems, this research work seeks to evaluate, to what extent, E-library could help grow the educational system vis-à-vis students’ academic performance in higher institutions of learning in Nigeria.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this study is to find out the effects of E-library on students’ academic performance in Nigeria Tertiary institution, specifically the study intends to:
1. Identify the type of library currently in use by students
2. Identify the extent to which the adoption of E-library services by the university has helped its students.
3. Find out the problem faced by students while using E-library