1.1 Background to the Study
Education is one of the most important aspects of human resource development, in this light it is imperative that every child should have the opportunity to achieve his or her academic potential (Haki Elimu, 2008). Despite the efforts done by the government to achieve the goals of providing education for all, have not been achieved. The variation of contribution of many stakeholder include the local communities in primary schools have been a “symptom” reflecting the shortage of teaching and learning resources as a result poor academic performance. It is essential that this symptom be scientifically analyzed to discover its underlying cause in order to suggest deliberate actions that should be taken to solve this problem (Pediatr, 2005).
The influence of instructional materials in promoting students’ teaching and learning in educational development is indisputable. Teaching at any level requires that the students be exposed to some form of simulation. Adekunle (2008) noted that an instructional material in social studies means anything that can assist the teacher in promoting teaching and learning. When the students are given the chance to learn through more senses than one, they can learn faster and easier. The use of instructional materials provides the teacher with interesting and compelling platforms for conveying information since they motivate learners to learn more. Furthermore the teacher is assisted in overcoming physical difficulties that could have hindered his effective presentation of a given topic.
Social studies was introduced into the Nigerian school system to achieve one of the philosophies of Nigerian education as indicated in the National Policy on Education which is “the development of the individual into a sound and effective citizen” (FGN, 2004). The realization of this objective through Social studies is possible since the subject is an integrated programme which are taught and learnt in Social studies looks at all aspects of the life of the child in the society. It is further stated in the National Policy on Education (2004) that education is to achieve the inculcation of national consciousness and national unity; the inculcation of the right type of values and attitudes for the survival of the individual and the Nigerian society. Therefore, Social Studies teaching has been a factor in determining whether a society will have democratic attitudes, values, problem-solving and decision-making skills and whether the society will consist of productive and participatory individuals (Ozturk and Otluoglu, 2002; Keeler, 2008). In Social Studies teaching, which is given such an important mission; it is possible to make the learning process easy, enduring and meaningful through the use of instructional materials. Orakwe (2000) refers to instructional materials as information repositories from the society sourced to transfer the desired information to the learners during classroom instruction. Agwu (2001) views Instructional Materials as those apparatus of teaching which may include textbooks, workbooks, charts, audio visual aids, chemicals, specimens and other relevant things that will attract students’ attention, and which should only be introduced at the appropriate time by the teacher.
Instructional materials are software and hardware that are used to make lessons more meaningful and clearer to learners. They are devises that appeal to multi model senses which help the learners conceive, perceive, internalize, interpret and transfer the experiences gained to similar or different learning situations. These materials and equipment, could be those that appeal to the sense of hearing-known as audio material equipment those of seeing called visual materials/equipment and those that combine the two senses called audio-visual materials.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Availability of instructional materials which ensures accreditation and reaccreditation of academic programs have generated serious issues and concern among scholars, researchers and business educators. However, there have been reports of abysmal state of public educational institutions, secondary schools in Nigeria is manifested with inadequacy, or outright non-availability of instructional materials in the teaching and learning processes. Acharu and Solomon (2014) supported the above assertion and stated that, one of the major challenges facing the schools is inadequate infrastructural facilities and the continuous breakdown and deterioration of existing facilities for teaching which has affected students’ achievement and academic performances. It is in view of this that this study is carried out to assess the factors that influence shortage of teaching and learning instructional materials in teaching and learning.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objectives of this study is to find out the factors influencing shortage of teaching and learning instructional materials in teaching and learning, specifically the study intends to:
1. Find out factors influencing shortage of teaching and learning instructional materials
2. Find out the availability of learning and teaching resources in secondary schools.
3. Examine the strategies used to enhance the availability of teaching and learning resources in primary schools.
1.4 Research Questions
1. What are the factors influencing shortage of teaching and learning instructional materials
2. What is the availability of learning and teaching resources in secondary schools?
3. What are the strategies used to enhance the availability of teaching and learning resources in primary schools?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
Ho: there is no factors influencing shortage of teaching and learning instructional materials
Hi: there is factors influencing shortage of teaching and learning instructional materials
1.6 Significance of the Study
The findings of this study is significant in different ways: .First, the study will improve and informs educational planners, policy makers and other education stakeholders the current status of educational resources in primary schools and how it affects teaching and learning process so that they can take plausible actions. Secondly, the study reveals the reasons underlying the factors influencing shortage of teaching/learning resources to education stakeholders so that they can formulate sound strategies for addressing the problem. Thirdly, it will contributes to the existing body of knowledge on the importance of educational resources for the delivery of quality education. Fourthly, this study forms the basis for further studies related to educational resources in primary school and other levels of education.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This research work will be conducted in Ogun state, secondary schools in Abeokuta North LGA will be used for this research
1.8 Delimitation of the Study
Finance for the general research work will be a challenge during the course of study. Correspondents also might not be able to complete or willing to submit the questionnaires given to them.
However, it is believed that these constraints will be worked on by making the best use of the available materials and spending more than the necessary time in the research work. Therefore, it is strongly believed that despite these constraint, its effect on this research report will be minimal, thus, making the objective and significance of the study achievable.