1.1 Background to the Study
In Nigeria, as well as in many other countries, the call for improved educational systems has resulted in both a gradual, general shift in educational management and specific efforts on the part of the governments to develop policies for transforming education. For several decades now, different Governments have indicated interest in transforming Nigeria and have come up with various educational policies and programs to ensure that they achieved their goals. The present administration has also come up with its transformation agenda which it hopes to achieve through quality education. Hence, new ideas in education in the area of policies and programmes, school, structure, funding, school management, mode of assessment of students’ performance etc, have been introduced in the education sector (Kolo, 2009). In effect, the various Nigerian governments recognize that the education sector is the key sector for the attainment of any transformation agenda. Education is accorded the highest priority so that Nigeria must participate competitively in the comity of nations in the production, transfer and utilisation of knowledge. It is on this platform that the Federal Republic of Nigeria in her national policy on education stated that:
Education shall continue to be highly rated in the national development plans because education is the most important instrument for change, any fundamental change in the intellectual and social outlook for society has to be proceeded by an educational revolution (FRN, 2004:7)
Managerial skills are essential capabilities that determine the extent of the actualization of educational goals. To be skilled in something for example in management connotes enough ability do something well. Okoye (2007) defined managerial skills as the ability to plan, control, organize and direct the operations of an educational enterprise for the purpose of achieving the objective target set for the educational system as a whole. Fullan (2005) defined managerial skills as the competencies required for effective and efficient planning, staffing, organizing, coordinating, controlling and decision-making. The ability, knowledge and experience required to accomplish management tasks are known as managerial skills. Managerial skills of school leaders thus refer to their ability to successfully plan, organize, co-ordinate, control, make decisions and initiate actions to aid the effective management of schools. Managerial skills are high priority issues for many people concerned with education these days. It is not surprising, then, that so many authors have provided insights about such skills for school administration (Mestry & Grobler, 2004; Monyatsi, 2005). The skills include the abilities to create a healthy school culture for continual improvement in quality education; teamwork with others; communicate goals, policies, and procedure to staff; modify practice and school structures to accommodate new policy expectations; provide curriculum leadership opportunities; ensure good principal-staff relationship and guide specific initiatives to improve student achievement (Carr, 2005; Elmore, 2005; Lezotte, & McKee, 2006).
The importance of school leaders’ possession of managerial skills for national transformation is obvious. Management is an integral part of any organization. It involves skillful organization and utilization of resources (human and material) for the achievement of goals (Ajaegbo, 2010). In educational organizations, the onus of managing schools for realization of educational objectives rest on the school head –rector, vice chancellor, principal or head teacher. In order to achieve optimum results, the leaders should be skilled in management. At the secondary level of education, the principal is the school leader. It is his duty to ensure that goals of educational policies and programs are realized. Azubike (2009) posited that the school principal is at the helm of implementation of education policies in his school. The principal is the person responsible for administrative practices of the school using the resources at his disposal in such a way that the school’s objectives are achieved. He relates with the various education authority to ensure that desired educational goals are realized. He performs managerial functions such as planning organizing, directing, coordinating, communication, motivation. Specifically his functions/roles include: establishing of healthy school climate and culture; curriculum instructor development and improvement; provision and maintenance of school plant facilities; and instructional and noninstructional supervision. Fagbamiye (2004) stated that the principal is essentially an organizer and implementer of plans, policies and programmes meant for specific educational objectives. His administrative tasks include directing the teachers and students in an environment conducive to the maximum development of the learners. The principal as the chief executive officer is expected to work hard to achieve stated goals using his knowledge and wisdom.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The Nigerian education system has many challenges: schools grapple with large class size, inadequate qualified teacher and shortage of fund. The state of some schools is worrisome as made manifest by dilapidated buildings, shortage of classroom accommodation, lack of consumable items (e.g. chalk), inadequate staff welfare, shortage of school furniture for students and teachers, lack of essential facilities such as water, light, toilet facilities and low levels of teacher productivity. Many schools in are characterized by near absence of internally generated revenue, financial problems, non-existent of computer aided administration, poor decision making, examination malpractice, improper planning, rising cases of students’ indiscipline and poor academic performance. In the face of these problems, primary school head teacher are being urged to transform their schools. Ascertaining the managerial skills the head teachers possess, as well identifying the strategies for improving their skills, are the problems of this study.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objectives of this study is to find out the influence of headmasters managerial skills on effective, specifically the study intends to;
1. Find out the required managerial skills needed by primary schools headmaster
2. Find out the how effective the managerial skills the principal possess
3. Examine the effect of the principal managerial skills on the performance of the students and teachers
1.4 Research Questions
1. What are the required managerial skills needed by primary schools headmaster?
2. How effective are the managerial skills the principal possess?
3. Is there any effect of the principal managerial skills on the performance of the students and teachers?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
Ho: there is no effect of the principal managerial skills on the performance of the students and teachers
Hi: there is effect of the principal managerial skills on the performance of the students and teachers
1.6 Significance of the Study
This research work will expose the students, teachers, parents, government at various levels the general public, school administrators on the information to reflect upon various factor that will help students in achieving their academic goals.
The findings of this study will also be useful to school proprietors, government school administrators and parents in understanding the impact of school principals on academic achievement of students. This study will also be of importance to students themselves as it will be made known to them the effects of their principal managerial skills on their academic achievement. Finally, the findings of the study will act as a reference point to other interested scholars interested in this area of research.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This research work will cover primary schools in Lagos state, five primary schools in Ikeja LGA will be selected for this research work, both teachers and head teachers will be sampled.
1.8 Delimitation of the Study
Finance for the general research work will be a challenge during the course of study. Correspondents also might not be able to complete or willing to submit the questionnaires given to them.
However, it is believed that these constraints will be worked on by making the best use of the available materials and spending more than the necessary time in the research work. Therefore, it is strongly believed that despite these constraint, its effect on this research report will be minimal, thus, making the objective and significance of the study achievable.
1.9 Definition of Terms
Managerial skill: a term that refers to the required skills (competencies) of the manager. In particular, following skills are included: Planning, Organizing, Leadership, Communicating, Decision Making, Problem Solving.
School Management: management includes professional personnel who are responsible for school management / administration. It includes principals, assistant principals, headmasters, assistant headmasters, and other management staff with similar responsibilities.