This study examined the training background and classroom management strategies in nursery and primary schools in District 2, Ikeja Local Government Area of Lagos State. In this study, relevant literatures were reviewed under sub-headings.
The descriptive research survey was used to assess the respondents’ opinions with the use of the questionnaire and the sampling technique. A total of 150 (one hundred and fifty) respondents were selected and used in this study. They comprised (75 males and 75 females).
Six (6) research questions which focused on the following: Is there any relationship between professionally trained teachers and classroom management?; How can the strategies adopted by teachers in private nursery/primary schools for classroom management can be effective?; Are there gender differences in classroom management style?; What mode/style of classroom management is predominant in sampled schools? and What are the factors militating against good classroom management in private schools? were raised in this study.
Four (4) null hypotheses were formulated and tested in this study, using the Pearson Product Moment Correlational Statistical tool, and the independent t-test tool at 0.05 level of significance.
At the end of the analyses, the following results emerged: a significant relationship exists between professionally trained teachers and mode of classroom management in schools, qualified teachers manage the classrooms better than the non-qualified ones, no significant gender difference exists in classroom management of teachers in private nursery and primary schools and no significant difference exists in the strategies adopted by teachers in both public and private schools.
1.1Background of the study
Although there is no agreed-upon definition of classroom management, the framework offered by Evertson and Weinstein (2006) represents a current and widely accepted view. According to Evertson and Weinstein, classroom management has two distinct purposes: “It not only seeks to establish and sustain an orderly environment so students can engage in meaningful academic learning, it also aims to enhance student social and moral growth”. Classroom management, often called classroom discipline, has been a priority for teachers for nearly 40 years, or for as long as there have been opinion surveys of educational priorities. For example, the Gallup Poll designed to assess perceptions of public education (Rose & Gallup, 2006) has consistently cited classroom management/school discipline as a major issue.
In a 2006 survey of Pre-K through 12th grade teachers conducted by the American Psychological Association (APA), teachers identified help with classroom management and instructional skills as their top need. Results from over 2300 responses showed that teachers wanted assistance with classroom management because of their concerns about student safety and their desire for strategies to deal effectively with students’ negative and/or disruptive behaviors.
Primary Education is the initial stage of education and has as its basic aim to create, establish and offer opportunities to all children, regardless of age, gender or country of origin, to achieve a balanced cognitive, emotional and psychomotor development.
Pre-Primary Education is compulsory for all the children that have reached the age of four years and eight months by the 1st of September of the year their tuition is due to begin.
Attendance of Primary Education is compulsory for all the children that have reached the age of five years and eight months. Most preschools and kindergartens are privately owned, but they register with the government and follow federal guidelines. They are normally very expensive, so only the wealthy can afford to send their children to preschools and kindergartens. The federal government initiated an early Childhood Care Development Education (ECCDE) program in the early 1990s, but rapid changes in political events prevented it from making progress.
In 1991, only 4.7 percent of preschool children had some preprimary education. The program called for community –based children. In 2001, as support for the UBE program, some communities began building their own nursery and preschool facilities with federal money and international grants and loans.
A programme was therefore designed with assistance from UNICEF, which focused on how the Ministry could transfer those aspects of the nursery situation that enhanced learning to the first level of the primary school. The main component of the programme was thus the training of 100 Infant Field Officers (IFOs) in classroom management, learning about the rights of a child, communication skills, making classroom aids and items for supplementing reading skills. The training was done in three batches and people were drawn from all the administrative Regions in the country as well as Georgetown.
After the training, the participants were responsible for going back to their schools and conducting staff development sessions, not only within their school, but also within the cluster of schools in their communities to achieve a multiplier effect. This project is now to be evaluated to measure the impact of the programme. UNICEF is one of the major sources of funding in the area of early childhood development. UNICEF was also instrumental in the design and introduction of the cumulative record cards, which will now move with children from the nursery level to the primary level. Wall pictures for reading and language development, curriculum guides and teachers’ manuals were also printed and are now in all the schools. This has led to the introduction of a standardized timetable for nursery schools throughout the country.
A perusal of the data in the Ministry of Education’s statistical digests reveals that just over thirty percent of nursery school teachers are trained. Sustained efforts have been made to continue this training. Not only does the CPCE offer a two-year programme in nursery teacher training but the University of Guyana also offers a B.Ed. in Early Childhood Education. The Ministry of Education also identified teachers to be trained as Nursery Field Officers (usually the Heads of nursery schools) and weekly workshops were initiated. To date there have been four (4) batches of Nursery Field Officers trained and the nursery level boasts eighty-five (85) Field Officers spread throughout the Regions. These Nursery Field Officers in turn carry out workshops within their own Regions to upgrade the skills of their colleagues. In spite of these increased training opportunities, the percentage of trained teachers has not shown significant improvement. Once trained, some are lost to the primary level where promotional opportunities may be seen to be better and some to the private sector.
1.2 Statement of problems
There is some concern that the proportion of trained teachers, in particular trained graduates, may fall in the future. Teachers’ salaries and working conditions are not competitive with those offered by the private sector or by opportunities outside of private sectors and in the last two decades the education sector has lost many teachers by way of migration. The number leaving had slowed considerably in the early years of the decade, but have increased again as opportunities have opened in Africa and other parts of the Nigeria.
Notwithstanding the emphasis that needs to be placed on primary education because of its fundamental place in the acquisition of basic education, it is also essential to realize the interdependence that necessarily exists among the various levels of the educational system.
One level feeds the other both up and down the system. Today’s unqualified or under-qualified teachers are the products of yesterday’s classrooms. The nation cannot wait ten years to see improvement in the functional literacy levels of today’s six-year-olds, while at the same time seeing its stock of functionally illiterate out-of-school youth and adults increase. To break the cycle, emphasis will be placed on securing appropriate literacy and numeracy skills throughout the system. There will be an attack on illiteracy from multiple points. This will include the testing for literacy levels and the building in of remedial programmes well in advance of management of classroom.
1.3 Objectives of the study
The specific objectives would include among others, the following:
Many people would like to believe that the issues of classroom management do not impact on children in the classroom but it is clear that they do. This project is aimed at addressing these issues.
i. To provide all the necessary knowledge to teachers on management of school children that will help their development through physical, cognitive, language, social and emotional growth.
ii. To support training and development techniques that will facilitate and creating opportunities for using skills in management classroom.
iii. To develop and train the trained human resources and support them effectively to carry out their work in early care and education of children.
iv. Teachers concerned with classroom management typically is dealing with current discipline problems and preventing it.
1.4 Research hypotheses
The following hypotheses will be tested
i. There is a significant relationship between necessary knowledge of teachers on classroom management and student development physically, cognitive, language, social and emotional growth.
ii. There is a significant relationship between train the trained human resources and support effective work to carry out in early education care of children
iii. There is a significant relationship between s training/development techniques and opportunities to facilitate the uses of skills in the management of classroom.
iv. Teachers concerned with classroom management typically is dealing with current discipline problems and preventing it.
1.5 Research Questions
(i) Is there any necessary knowledge for teachers on management of school that will help the children development through physical, cognitive, language, social and emotional growth.
(ii) Do training and development techniques that will facilitate and creating opportunities for using skills in management classroom.
(iii) If train the trained human resources and support them effectively to carry out their work in early care and education of children.
(iv) If impact of Teachers concerned with classroom management will typically with problems and preventing it.
1.6 Significant of the study
(i) The study will help in will review the techniques in management classroom curricula of the system, and its teaching and learning materials, with respect to gender considerations, and appropriate revisions will be made.
(ii) Monitoring tools and mechanisms will be developed by the Ministry of Education for following the treatment of gender issues in the school system, and for providing corresponding feedback to school administrators and teachers.
(iii). Improved baseline for policy makers and planners on education on , systematic classroom management procedures
(iv) The study will be help in developed and implemented policy that will improve classroom management for the benefit of effective teaching in the classroom
(v) Training programmes for school administrators, central educational authorities and regional officials will be strengthened and applied more broadly.
(vi) Special orientation and training programmes will be instituted for newly appointed teaching officials.
(vii) Similarly, mechanisms will be developed for the involvement of representatives of local communities and regions in overall education planning and delivery, including issues related to the curriculum.
1.7 Definition of Terms
Training: This means training somebody for something in order to be somebody or something; the act of giving teaching and practice to an individual or a worker in order to bring to a directed standard of behaviour, efficiency or physical condition.
Large Class: This is a situation where there is an over crowdedness in a given classroom setting. It is the high teacher – pupil ratio in a classroom.
Small Class Size: This refers to the classroom situation which is small and manageable by the teacher. It represents low and moderate teacher – pupil ratio.
Teaching Effectiveness: This means the teaching method in the school system that is effective, one that serves its purpose and aim of the teaching and learning.
Teacher: A trained person in the field of education who helps pupil, students or learners to learn.
Teaching Aids:- in this study, teaching aids is resources that are used to help transfer information to the pupils. It is also called instructional material.