Collective bargaining is essentially the negotiations about working conditions and term of employment between the employer s and employees or government with the view to reaching an agreement. It primary aim is to bring both parties in a working relationship together for the purpose to ensure industrial harmony and the attainment of organizational goal. The aim of the project is to find out how collective bargaining can effectively ensure industrial harmony thereby increasing productivity and improve performance through collective agreement.
The estimated population of Lagos State University Staff is 5000, A Sample of 50 employees were selected using simple random sampling technique. A close-ended questionnaire was used as the major instrument of data collection. The information obtained was presented onfrequency table using simple percentage. The hypotheses formulated were tested using chi-square non-parametric test.
The study so far has shown that workers tend to put more effort to work, when their welfare package are adequately stated in the collective bargaining agreement and also revealed that collective bargaining will go long way at ensuring industrial harmony, reduce inter-group conflict, and improve performance and organizational productivity.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
There has been growing a fear about strained labour management relations in Nigeria in the recent times. This concern arises from the need to improve relations and particularly collective bargaining process in developing countries. Industrial relation is a management tool applied to eradicate or remove industrial conflict thus ensuring industrial peace and harmony. This is done through bridging the relationship gap between management and workers. When management establishes good industrial elations within an organization traipses of industrial conflict and misunderstanding would be naturalized and peace is enthroned (Fashoyin, 2002).
The nature of labour management relation in contemporary Nigeria when critically show that, a sizeable proportion or employers still disregard the significance of industrial harmony as a gateway to quality, control circle – master piece for productivity. Quality control circles a new management principle or the industry into a family arena or partners in progress. Consequently, when there is benefit of doubt on assumed confidence against any of the parties’ disagreement and conflict come up and industrial harmony is strained. This can lead lo industrial strife, unrest and strike, if not curtailed any government which fails to take precautions over industrial unrest may face the problems of resuscitating its economy for better, after a hard time (Fashoyin, 2002). A host of definition has been put up by renowned labor leaders and used explained the meaning of industrial relation and collective bargaining thus.
Cordova, (1980), defines industrial relations as “the process of interest accommodation by which conditions of work are fixed, relations are regulated and power is shared in the field of labour. Flanders, (1970), defined collective bargaining as a “social process that continually turns disagreements into agreement in an orderly fashion” “collective bargaining aims to establish by negotiation and discussion agreed rules and decisions on matters of mutual concern to employers and unions as well as group and the employers” or different positions on issues such as negotiation on salaries and wages, management policies etc.
The representatives in bargaining process must deal with each other in good faith and adopt the spirit of give and take. By its very nature, collective bargaining is usually a complicated time consuming and exasperating exercise. The ultimate goal of any negotiation is the agreements which may not necessarily resolve all issue in dispute (Cordova,1980)
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
In view of the adverse effect experienced by organization, as a result of dispute, the studies have identified the following problems below:
The strained labour and management relation in Nigeria has been attributed to low income of the workers. Which has restrained industrial peace, a situation where an employee perceive that he is paid less for the services rendered to the organization it becomes imperative forsuch an employee to continue given out is best to the organization.
Also, most of the industries in West Africa, especially in Nigeria have a poor welfare packages for their employee, they were only recognized by there multi-million naira physical structure and less to appreciate about there employee working condition. The unfavorable working condition has put many out of job and the enduring ones because or industrial unrest and this is not good in ensuring industrial harmony.
Furthermore, in many organization where parochial sentiment apply to their terms of employment, such employee under this influence may be perceived as an enemy in achieving their collective goal by other member of the s.rch organization. This issue of perceiving the other party us an enemy goes along way in bringing about, division in labour union.
Also, many organizations have been battling with many problems which are not unconnected with their leadership style, and have brought about poor organization performance, and lack or confidence in relating with such a manager, that failed to associate himself with the employee in bringing out the best in them.
However, the state as the policy maker con tributes in various industrial unrest, has restrained industrial harmony. Government policy to be active participant in some industry has generated more confusion in meeting the demand of labour. The inconsistence in various governments has made so many organizations to fold-up.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The main objective or this study is to determine the effect of collective bargaining on industrial harmony in the manufacturing sector in Nigeria. While other specific objectives include:
1. To determine the effect of collective bargaining on organizational performance in the manufacturing sector.
2. To determine the effect of collective bargaining on organizational productivity.
3. To examine the effect of collective bargaining on employee welfare.
4. To analyze the effect of collective bargaining on employee job performance.
5. To examine the effect of collective bargaining on employee job productivity.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions are considered relevant for the purpose of this research which includes:
1. What is the relationship between collective bargaining and industrial harmony?
2. What is the relationship between collective bargaining and organizational performance?
3. What is the relationship between collective bargaining on employees’ welfare?
4. What is the relationship between collective bargaining and employees job performance?
5. What is the relationship between collective bargaining and organizational productivity?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The study is significant because it will examine the effect of collective bargaining on industrial harmony in the manufacturing industry in Nigeria.
The following can be acclaimed as the beneficiaries of this research. First, to the industry under review, it will enable them to determine the effect of collective bargaining on industrial harmony, performance, productivity and industrial dispute.
The study will justify the effect of collective bargaining on industrial harmony and also make them understand that strike is not a means to an ends rather it’s an ends to a means. That in seeking for their right, there are legal procedure that might not result to strike. As strike should be last measure of seeking redress.
To employer, the study will also enable them to understand t he effect or collective bargaining on industrial harmony, productivity and performance. That the main reasons why there is industrial unrest is cause by the attitude, self aggrandizement display by top managementofficials to respect the collective bargaining agreement in ensuring industrial harmony.
To the students, it will serve as a practicing ground that collective agreement vital in their daily unionist activities that the only way they can compel obedience is through collective bargaining.
However, to researchers and scholars, in the field of human resource management, it will be of significant important, because this research work will serve as an effort ground towards finding the necessary solution to ensuring industrial harmony. Cordova, (1980), beliefs, collective bargaining is usually a complicated time consuming and exasperating exercise.
And finally, the research work is also significant to the policy makers because it will ensure that policy made are through reflection or expressions of the feeling of the Nigeria labour. Rather than adopting a by-product of British labour policy.
1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS
In order to accomplish the objective of this research work, the area covered by the study is Lagos State University (LASU Ojo) more emphasis shall be laid on the union members and the individual relation department, management and staff or the company.
However, data will be used in the course or the study will be obtained from this organization for the analysis and interpretation of the result finding will be based on these data.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
· Collective bargaining: the process of negotiating wages and other working conditions collectively between employers and trade unions, it enables the conditions of employees to be agreed as a whole group instead or individually.
· Employees Welfare: that prescribes some amenities and facilities that ought to be provided for the well-being of workers at the work place. The welfare stipulated by the Decree include the supply of drinking water, washing facilities, provision of accommodation for clothing, readily accessible first aid box or cupboard, except where an ambulance room is provided.
· Industrial conflict: Kornhouser (1954) defined industrial conflict as the range and behaviours and altitude that express opposition and divergent orientations between industrial owners and managers on one hand and working people and their organization on the other.
· Industrial Relation: industrial relations can be regarded as a system or web of rules regulating employment and the ways in which people behave at work. The systems theory of industrial relations, as propounded by Dun lop (1958), states t hat the role of the systemis to produce the regulations and procedural rules that govern how much is distributed in the bargaining process and how the pat-tics involved, in the industrial relations scene, relate to one another.
· Performance Control: involves the process of identifying individuals whose performanceis consistently below standard and taken corrective measures to restore the performance to an acceptable level.
· Quality Control: is basically a system for setting quality standards, measuring performance against those standards and taking appropriate action to deal with deviations outside permitted tolerances.
1.9 PLAN OF STUDY
To achieve the above aims and objectives this work has been divided into five (5) chapters thus:
Chapter one introduce the topic, statement of problems, the objectives of writing the research work, research question, research hypotheses, significant of study, scope and limitations, definition or terms and finally organization of study.
The second chapter is mainly concentrated on literature review. It contains reviewing of relates literatures, lectures delivered, statements made, all in the research work. It is purely committed to establishing theeffect of collective bargaining on industrial harmony.
Chapter three contains the structural composition and methodology of the project, statement of research question, the sample from the population to use for the research work. The way data ate collected and analyzed is also in this chapter, and lastly administration of data collection.
Chapter four enumerates as well, analyze question asked from respondent, which is analysis of data, testing the hypothesis and so on.
Chapter live is devoted to summarization, recommendations, conclusion and suggestion. In this chapter the research study is within the scope of determine the effect of collective bargaining on industrial harmony.