This research project tends to examine The Impact of Instructional Media on Students’ Academic Performance in Senior Secondary Schools with special reference to selected secondary schools in Ifako Ijaiye Local government Education District of Lagos State.
The research adopts a survey and a descriptive research design with a well structured questionnaire. Data were basically sourced through primary means. Simple random sampling was adopted in the selection of respondents. Ten schools were selected and two hundred (200) students were chosen -both male and female.
Four hypothesis were formulated and tested with the used of Chi-square analysis. The analysis resulted into rejecting the four null hypotheses and concluding that; the use of instructional media will aid the academic performance of students; there is a significant relationship between student gender and their performance; Instructional media will assist teachers in teaching concepts.
Among other recommendations, it was recommended that effort should be made to provide adequate instructional media because of its great value to teaching and learning, also the school authorities should organize programme to coach teachers on the use of instructional media to aid their teaching in biology through seminars, workshops and conferences.
1.1 Background to the Study
The word ‘instruction’ is the act of teaching or passing information unto others while ‘media’ is any material or equipment that conveys information from a source to a receiver or vice-versa. However, the concept of instructional media, because of its numerous definitions, has been defined in different ways by several authorities and authors.
Each author describes the concept from his or her own perception of it. In the past, instructional media was called teaching aids, but because of the important roles it plays in the development of education, scholars and authorities in the field of education have re-examined its significance and changed the nomenclature. It was observed that they are not mere aids to teaching but also good sources of knowledge and motivation to learners, sources of generating new ideas, and sources of in-depth thought in different fields as well as organizers of learning.
The new perception of the concept necessitates carving a new and more suitable nomenclature known as educational media, instructional materials or instructional media. Instruction media also means both human and material resources which make teaching and learning to be more explicit, though provoking, interesting, efficient and more effective.
Examples of human resources include resource person such as lawyers, doctors, engineers, social workers, religious leaders and so on. While material resources include prints, electronic and real objects.
Examples of these are pictures, diagrams, maps, radio, television, projectors and so on. As important as these media are, it has been realized that the shortage in their provision has caused a lot of hazard in the performance of students in our schools, most especially at Senior Secondary level. Not withstanding, their availability must not make them a master to the teacher, but a good servant that is used most effectively and efficiently to ensure that adequate learning takes place in the classroom.
Historical Development of Instructional media
The history of instructional media can be traced back to the development of technology, which can not be credited to any single individual but a gradual process that started from the Stone Age, through the book and chalk age and finally, the mass communication age.
The Stone Age:
According to Adewoyin (2004), the period of Stone Age marked the beginning of visual aids such as stones, pebbles, sticks and cowries which were used to enhance effective learning and communication. Also some educators like Socrates (497-399BC), Plato (428-349BC) and St. Thomas Aquinas (a theologian/philosopher) also made their marks in dealing with issues relating to the right methods of instruction to employ, the sequence to be followed and the type of evaluation to be adopted.
The Book and Chalk Age
The year 1450 AD marked a significant turning point in the history of the evolution of educational media. This is because John Guttenberg, a German, invented a printing press that year. His invention gave access to books with the production of the Holy Bible in 1456.
Consequently, several others contributed immensely to the development of educational technology and instructional media.
Prominent among them were individuals like Pythagoras, Propikos and Hippas (all Greek teachers). They developed new techniques of teaching and encouraged the use of apparatus in the teaching/learning process.
In addition, individuals like Joseph Lancaster Pestalozzi (1746 – 1872) and Fredric Froebel (1882 – 1852) also made their useful contributions. While Pestalozzi introduced the use of bold letters in writing and the use of different colours on charts (visuals), he also recommended that learning should commence from the concrete (known) to the abstract (unknown). Rabelis (1483 – 1553 AD) and Amos Cornelius (1592 – 1670 A.D) also made their marks. Rabelis advocated for the use of real objects to clarify words and remarked that pictures were second best to real objects. Cornelius however advocated for the use of many textbooks with illustrations and pictures. He published his first Visual Aid Textbook for children in Latin and called it “Orbits pictures” meaning “the world In pictures.” Adewoyin (2004)
The Mass Communication Age
The advent of science and technology in communication ushered in the mass communication age. The development in telecommunication led to the invention of radio, television, telephone, internet and other modern telecommunication systems which made education accessible to millions of listeners.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
This study is aimed at identifying some of the problems associated with the impact of instructional media on students’ academic performance in senior secondary schools.
Some of the Problems Include:
Teachers’ inability to select appropriate instructional media for different subjects, which means that the instructional media selected for subjects taught are either irrelevant or outdated. Such instructional media make lessons boring, uninteresting and dull. Another problem is teachers’ inability to use the media selected, such as slides, microscope, chemicals etc appropriately. There should be pre-test of media before being used in the classroom.
Teaching in abstract is another problem. Many teachers teach without the use of instructional media. Their belief is that some topics can’t be taught with the use of instructional media. Such topics include reproduction in Biology, nouns in English, to mention but a few.
Teachers’ inability to improvise. Teachers sometimes unreal on commercially produced media like films, posters, ready made charts and so on but are unable to produce local instructional media for teaching.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
This study intends to look into the extent to which the instructional media has affected performance of students.
It will focus on the definition of the overview of the research work. It will basically deal with the total number of data presented for the research work without considering the age or teacher’s influence or any barrier.
1.4 Research hypothesis and limitation of the study
The role of media in teaching will be the main focus. Also the research work will only be limited to Senior Secondary Schools with particular reference to selected schools in Ifako-Ijaye Local Government. In testing the hypothesis, chi-square method will be employed because it could be use for both small and large sample.
Chi-square method is a measure of the discrepancies between observed and expected frequencies of 1, 2 or more variables.
Ho (Null hypothesis): That uses of media in teaching biology in secondary schools affect the performance of the students in schools.
Hi (Alternative hypothesis): That uses of media in teaching biology in secondary schools does not affect the performance of the students in schools.
Accept Ho if computed X2 in less than table of value i.e O2 the null hypothesis is accepted.
The study will enable the school to appreciate the role of media in teaching in secondary schools. It will also serve as a pointer to area where there are needs for improvement and modification teaching role of students and community at large.
The research will also assess the classification of media and the criteria for selection of instructional media.
1.5 Significance of the Study
This research is basically to identify the impact of instructional media in schools and provide support for schools and colleges.
It shall also seek improvement for teachers in the aspect of teaching/learning activities in the schools.
This study is to promote and advance teaching/learning programmes in Nigeria as well as to assist teachers, learners, proprietors of schools and those that would be school owners to be creative, formative and sustainable in the quest for issues of educational development through instructional media.
1.6 Research Questions
This research is to answer the following questions:
i. How do instructional media affect the academic performance of students?
ii. Does gender affect students’ academic performance.
iii. What difficulties do biology teachers encounter in employing the use of instructional media to teach the subject?
1.7 Research Hypothesis
The use of instructional media will aid the academic performance of students.
There is a significant relationship between student gender and their performance.
Instructional media will assist teachers in teaching concepts.
1.8 Scope and Limitations
This study in Limited to Senior Secondary Schools in Ifako-Ijaiye Local Government Area of Lagos State.
Definition of Terms
Teaching – Methods of imparting knowledge to others
Instruction – Direction on how to do something
Media – An organization that provides information for the
public. Examples are television, radio etc
Instructional Media – Materials used in passing information and
Imparting knowledge unto others.
Concept – Knowledge or understanding of something.
Improvisation – Use of locally available materials for the real ones
Realia – Real objects that convey information unto.
Nomenclature – Scientific naming of things
Resources – Useful things that exist on order to improve
There are human and material resources
Evaluation – Judgment about how good, successful, Useful or
effective something is
Communication – Way of sending information from one person or
place to another.