INCIDENT OF URBAN DRIFT IN ENUGU STATE
CASE STUDY OF AWGU TOWN.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Charles Darwin (1959) the history of man from animals wandering in the wilderness which have no fixed home but moved from one tree to another, from on district to another till he attained the states of homo-sapiens like Darwin all historians of early man like Lamarck (1809). Saw man as a wonder. Thus Karl-Marx (1948) began his easy on man in his famous book “ the communist manifesto” which goes thus “in the beginning was man the wonder who went out to gather fruits of the earth, some gather more than they needed thereby making it impossible fro others to gather what will be enough for themselves. Thereby leading to the origin of the famous slogan which is the situation of Haves and have not’s.
Other historian maintained that man has always been a mover. According to Marine (1990) it is increasingly known that man especially in large numbers move from their homes, villages cities, countries of origin to national boundaries often move to return. Many do so in search of economic opportunities not available at their homes of origin. Others primarily to escape oppressions striate or natural disaster. These extensive population flows are not peculiar to the contemporary world. Maboyuje (1970) noted that Migration in the early fifties also involves movement from rapidly growing to relatively stagnant areas of the economy. Throughout recorded history, such movements have national population, the disparities between rich and poor nations, the conflict between ethics and national groups the conflict between rich and poor nations and the impact of national disasters, we expect these flows to continue.
Man being itinerant, according to Rouch (1954) and Harrison (1967), more for various reasons man move from land of security into place of freedom, which is why we have refuges from somalin, sudanm riveands, Burunadi, Mozamabique etc. into area where they will feel safe. Amn also moves around for academic residing in Awgu town will move to study in places of his choice. Some even move to Europe, America or other places oversees. That mobility in man makes him to come back again to his country of origin for employment opportunities. On the other hand, the socio-economic development of Nigeria since the end of the commercial manufacturing and exporting crops development leading to massive migration which was disrupted during the civil was continued unbaked after the war.
It is from the above noted that research work on the incidence of rural-urban drift in Awgu town settlers will be analyzed.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
Rural urban drift is a common phenomenon in Nigeria because the rate of which people drift from rural areas to urban areas is alarmingly high and thereby not encouraging. It posses some problems on the urban area thereby making it difficult for the out migrate to stele down comfortably.
Rural urban drift is a problem especially on the urban settlers because first and foremost, when the urban drift leaves the rural area as a result of the “pull” factors which are mainly seen in the urban area for instance, the attraction of higher wages in the city, good rods and transport system electricity (power supply) according to Forts (1970) labour enterprises and skills are now marketable in their own right anywhere in the country, “good and sound” education and a host of many “pull” factors which attract people to the city.
On the urban drift arrival in the city, the reception is sometime hostile especially where the urban drift does not know anyone in the receiving society he is going to and does not have enough funds on him. On the contrary, the reception time is worn when the urban drift has relatives Kinsmen, he will put up with till he secures in job is able to earn a living.
As the urban drift moves to the urban areas from the rural area. It leads to dividing numbers of villages and poor agricultural production. The urban areas offer a large variety of activities and these are clubs and organization associated with almost every activity from acting and bicycling to rock-hounding and going to amusement parks. Some companies sponsor clubs and sports teams, despite these heart plans, these are those who find themselves in trouble as contingency planning which is appropriate before moving to the urban is not considered (Dough and Vargh 1998).
It is possible that those who drift into Awgu town will encounter problems. According to Ayles Worth and Bloom (1976), they saw an urban drift as having a lower surviving rate as a result of factors, such as the urban drift low socio-economic origin and greater difficulty in procuring financial and which increased the possibility of attention through an interview. The urban drift also reveled/mentioned problems which reflected high level of stress and alienation problems of feeling with the urban area (town) size and impersonality finding other residents who were cultural similar end or friendly.
Many people moving from a rural to urban environment to have title concept of the associated cost and may therefore be in severe financial difficulties within a short time at the arrival. If a realistic budget which is an important aspect of adjusting to an urban life is not considered, Lawrence (1984) so having indentified the effects of rural urban drift on the rural settler.
Over the years calls have been made from consigned quarters varying the government (both the military and civil authorities) to hasten the pace of development in rural areas pointing out the effect of rural-urban drift as a serious threat to national socio-economic development every indication, the clarion call seem to have fallen into deaf ears of our leaders. Thereby forcing the massive surge of the jobless dropouts semi-skilled, able-bodied men and women to abandon the rural area with its poor, unattractive, unprogressive, suppressible environment, roaming the urban areas looking for any menial jobs for mere substance.
The effect of population increases serves also as a clear factor instigating the drift to the urban. One may be motivated therefore to ask has the government been able to contain or decisively address the problems of rural urban drift. With its attendant problem? What are the reasons for the abject neglect of the rural areas? In spite of the huge allocation of fund from the federal coffer for both capital and recurrent expenditure to develop the rural areas, so as to stem down the rural-urban drift, there is no visible impact to justify the colossal sum being ear-marked yearly for the development of the rural areas in this country especially in Awgu LGA. It must be noted that most of people living in Awgu LGA are peasant farmers and petty traders, semi-skilled artisans and dropouts. Who can not afford decent means of livelihood coupled with the land tenure system prevailing in Igbo land. So, youths and able-bodied from the case study area (Awgu town) therefore have no other choice than to leave the rural environment abounding the very elderly ones in search of means of sustenance.
Having established industries in Awgu de-emphasizing rural-urban migration by providing social amenities in the rural areas like good roads, electricity, pipe borne water. Since most of these facilities do not exist in the rural area, it makes the rural dwellers to seek for improved or better, life in the urban cities so as to feel belonged formulation policy measures that might remedy or control the effects of rural urban drift and others. These solution shall be sought and recommended it hoped that such suggested solution should help if followed properly, but if not solved completely. More and more people will continue to migrate to urban conters to avoid feeling of inferiority to their counterparts in the urban centers.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions are formulated to guide the study.
1. To what extent is the incidence of rural urban drift common among the people of Awgu town, Awgu LGA?
2. What factors are responsible for the incidence of rural-urban drift among the people of Awgu town, Awgu LGA?
3. What are the effects of our migration on the economy of Awgu town, Awgu LGA?
4. What are the solutions to the problems of rural-urban drift among the people of Awgu town, Awgu LGA?
1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objectives of this study is to
1. To ascertain the extent is the incidence of rural urban drift common among the people of Awgu town, Awgu LGA?
2. To identify the factors are responsible for the incidence of rural-urban drift among the people of Awgu town, Awgu LGA?
3. To find out the effects of our migration on the economy of Awgu town, Awgu LGA?
4. To proffer solutions to the problems of rural-urban drift among the people of Awgu town, Awgu LGA?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study is significant in two ways.
It will add to the existing body of knowledge on rural depopulation.
Practically, the study is significant in that it will create awareness among the people of Awgu town on the evil effects of out-migration.
1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS
1. Rurality or rural dwellers: Are these people that lives in the village and their main occupation are farming
2. urban dwellers: They are those people that live in the town or city.
3. rural-urban drift: It is the movement of the people from the rural to urban areas in search of greener pasture
4. Urbanism: Denotes the distinct quality of human community which is a special mode of existing or way of life which is characteristics of the city. These shows that there are differences in quality of life between urban and rural life.
5. Urbanisation: Is defined as diffusion of urban centers to a rural hinterland. It involves the process of movement of people into cities and consequent growth of structures in the cities. The urbanization process usually results in the creation and growth of cities.
6. industrialization: Is a process of building of a country’s productive capacity to process raw materials and manufacture goods and service for the consumptions and further production. It also includes the provision of basic infrastructural facilities such as electricity, water and transportation services within a country such that the people will satisfy most of their basic needs, gain full employment and be self reliant.
7. Urban pathology: Is all about the serious health problem faced by urban dwellers resulting from inadequate supply of safe water, poor housing, poor sanitary conditions, pollutions, poverty, poor transportation system etc.