Project Topics

PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND THE ANTIINFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF DICHLOROMETHANE FRACTION OF METHHANOL EXTRACT OF CRATEVA ADANSONII

ABSTRACT 
Inflammation is a complex biological response of vascular tissue to harmful stimuli such as pathogen, damage cells or irritants (Ryan & Majno, 1983). The urgency generated by increased rate of stroke, atherosclerosis attribute due to prolonged use of cyclooxygenase-1 and Cyclooxygenase- 2 inhibitors have accelerated anti-inflammatory drug research over the last decade while synthetic pharmaceutical agents continued to dominate research (Ryan & Majno, 1983). Attention increasingly has been directed to natural products. These are often more affordable and available and sometimes are perceived as more effective than conventional anti- inflammatory drugs. Anti-inflammation was carried out using 12 rats which was divided into three groups of 4 rats each. Group 1 and 2 served as the negative and positive control respectively. Group 3 received 25mg/kg b.w. of the dichloromethane fraction of methanol extract of Crateva adansonii showed significance anti-inflammatory activity when compared with the standard difference used.  
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page————————- i
Certification—————–ii
Dedication————————.iii
Acknowledgement——————-.iv
Abstract————————–v
Table of Content——————–vi
CHAPTER ONE
1.1 Introduction ——————-1
1.2 Crateva adansonii as a plant———.4
1.3 Research aim and objectives———.7
CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 Definition of Inflammation———8
2.1 Characteristics of Inflammation——.8
2.2 Classes of Inflammation———-9
2.3 Types of Inflammation———–.10
2.4 Chemical mediators of Inflammation—-13
2.4.0 Properties of Mediators———-16
2.4.1 Histamine—————- 18
2.4.2 Serotonin (5- Hydroxy tryptamine)—- 21
2.4.3 Cytokines——————– 24
2.4.4 Arachidonic acid ————— 30
2.4.5 Platelet Activating Factor (PAF)—— 34
2.4.6 Free Radicals————–.36
2.4.6.1 Nitric Oxide (NO)———— 37
2.4.6.2 Oxygen-derived free radicals——. 40
2.4.7.0 Complement system———-. 41
2.4.7.1 The clotting system/Coagulation system. 45
2.4.7.2 The Kinin System———–. 48
2.4.7.3 The fibrinolytic system——— 50
2.5.0 Anti-Inflammatory agents——–53
2.5.1 Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS) 53
2.5.1.0 Mechanism of Action of NSAIDS—-.55
2.5.2 Steroidal Anti-inflammatory drugs—-58
CHAPTER THREE
MATERIAL AND METHODS
3.1 Materials—————— 60
3.1.1 Equipment/Apparatus used——– 60
3.1.2 Chemical, Solvents and Reagents——61
3.1.3 Animals——————–62
3.2 Methodology——————.63
3.2.1 Collection and preparation of Plant Materials–63
3.2.2 Extraction——————-.63
3.3 Fractionation—————— 64
3.3.1 Gel Column Chromatography———.64
3.4. Identification of Phytochemical groups in the extract—————–. 65
3.4.1 Preparation of Reagents for phytochemical analysis——————–.65
3.4.2 Qualitative phytochemical analysis of the Extract—————–.66
3.5 Thin Layer Chromatography———- 71
3.6 Anti-inflammatory activity test. ——– 72
CHAPTER FOUR
Result———————–.75
CHAPTER FIVE
Discussion——————— 79
Conclusion——————— 81
References———————.82
Appendixes——————87