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From a page move: This is a redirect from a page that has been moved (renamed). This page was kept as a redirect to avoid breaking links, both internal and external, that may have been made to the old page name.
Grover Sanders Krantz (November 5, 1931 – February 14, 2002) was an American anthropologist and cryptozoologist; he was one of few scientists not only to research Bigfoot, but also to express his belief in the being’s existence. Throughout his professional career, Krantz authored more than 60 academic articles and 10 books on human evolution, and conducted field research in Europe, China, and Java.
Susan Lee Lindquist, ForMemRS (June 5, 1949 – October 27, 2016) was an American professor of biology at MIT specializing in molecular biology, particularly the protein folding problem within a family of molecules known as heat-shock proteins, and prions. Lindquist was a member and former director of the Whitehead Institute and was awarded the National Medal of Science in 2010.
Robert Delafield Rands (1890–1970) was an American agronomist and mycologist. He served as Chief Director of Agriculture Office of Rubber Plant Investigations in the United States Department of Agriculture.
Stuart Alan Kauffman (born September 28, 1939) is an American medical doctor, theoretical biologist, and complex systems researcher who studies the origin of life on Earth.
In 1967 and 1969 Kauffman proposed applying models of random boolean networks to simplified genetic circuits. These were very early models of large genetic regulatory networks, proposing that cell types are dynamical attractors of such networks and that cell differentiation steps are transitions between attractors. Recent evidence strongly suggests that cell types in humans and other organisms are indeed attractors. In 1971 he suggested that the zygote may not access all the cell type attractors in the repertoire of the genetic network’s dynamics, hence some of the unused cell types might be cancers. This suggested the possibility of “cancer differentiation therapy”.
In 1971, Kauffman proposed the self-organized emergence of collectively autocatalytic sets of polymers, specifically peptides, for the origin of molecular reproduction. Reproducing peptide, DNA, and RNA collectively autocatalytic sets have now been made experimentally. He is best known for arguing that the complexity of biological systems and organisms might result as much from self-organization and far-from-equilibrium dynamics as from Darwinian natural selection as discussed in his book Origins of Order (1993). His hypotheses stating that cell types are attractors of such networks, and that genetic regulatory networks are “critical”, have found experimental support. It now appears that the brain is also dynamically critical.
Francisco José Ayala Pereda (born March 12, 1934) is a Spanish-American evolutionary biologist and philosopher at the University of California, Irvine. He is a former Dominican priest, ordained in 1960, but left the priesthood that same year. After graduating from the University of Salamanca, he moved to the US in 1961 to study for a PhD at Columbia University. There, he studied for his doctorate under Theodosius Dobzhansky, graduating in 1964. He became a US citizen in 1971.
He has been President and Chairman of the Board of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. At University of California, Irvine, his academic appointments include University Professor and Donald Bren Professor of Biological Sciences, Ecology & Evolutionary Biology (School of Biological Sciences), Professor of Philosophy, (School of Humanities), and Professor of Logic and the Philosophy of Science (School of Social Sciences).
Thomas Stevenson (1838 – 18 January 1908) was an English toxicologist and forensic chemist. He served as an analyst to the Home Office and in England he served as an expert witness in many famous poisoning cases. These included the Pimlico Mystery, The Maybrick Case, the Lambeth Poisoner, and the George Chapman case.
In 1857 Stevenson became a medical pupil to Mr Steel of Bradford. He entered Guy’s Hospital Medical School in 1859 and graduated MB, London, in 1863 and M.D. in 1864. He won several gold medals whilst a student. He became MRCP in 1864 and FRCP in 1871. Stevenson became demonstrator in practical chemistry at Guy’s in 1864, and was lecturer in chemistry, 1870–98, and in forensic medicine, 1878-1908, in succession to Alfred Swaine Taylor (1806–80). He also served as the President of the Institute of Chemistry and of the Society of Public Analysts.
He is notable as the scientific mentor of the Nobel Prize winner Frederick Hopkins.
Stevenson died of diabetes on 27 July 1908 at his home in Streatham High Road, London and was buried at West Norwood Cemetery. One of his children became a medical missionary in India.
James Parsons Burkitt (1870 – 1959) was a civil engineer; he was County Surveyor in County Fermanagh from 1900 until his retirement in 1940. Burkitt was a keen amateur ornithologist and studied European robins in the garden of his home (called Lawnakilla) near Enniskillen, County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland. He started ringing the birds in October 1922, and his research, which was published in the journal British Birds between 1924 and 1926, was one of the first studies of bird behaviour and territory to use rings that enabled individual birds to be identified in the field. Later, at Laragh, Ballinamallard, County Fermanagh, Burkitt proved the longevity of one female robin. He had ringed this bird on 18 December 1927 and trapped her again on 14 July 1938 — this robin was at least 11 years old, “the oldest living robin in the world”.
Burkitt’s work was greatly admired by David Lack, who carried out further research on robins in the 1930s and 1940s.
Burkitt’s elder son was the surgeon Denis Parsons Burkitt FRS (1911-1993), for whom Burkitt’s lymphoma is named.
James Burkitt was born on 20 August 1870, at Killybegs, Co. Donegal, third son of Thomas Henry Burkitt, Presbyterian minister, and his wife Emma Eliza, née Parsons.
He was educated at Galway Grammar School, Queen’s College, Galway, and the Royal University of Ireland, obtaining the degrees of BA (1891) and BE (1892) with first-class honours.
He then became an assistant to James Perry in Galway, during which period he superintended the underpinning of a large bridge and the erection of a pier and swing bridge over and estuary of the sea. In May 1893 he became assistant engineer to – Fisher on the Westport & Mulranny extension of the Midland Great Western railway, and in February 1894 to the partnership of Fisher & Le Fanu in the construction of the Collooney & Claremorris railway. On the completion of the latter, he continued to work for Fisher & Le Fanu on the Belfast waterworks. In 1897 he was employed on the Downpatrick waterworks under Peter Chalmers Cowan. He appears to have moved briefly to Co. Donegal before being appointed county surveyor for Co. Fermanagh at the end of 1898 in succession to Frederick Richard Thomas Willson.
He held the Co. Fermanagh surveyorship for over forty years. Responsible for extensive road improvements in the county and for the introduction of tarmacadam road surfaces in 1904, he also built several bridges during the 1920s and 1930s. He retired in April 1940.(1)
It was a few years after he had settled in Fermanagh, when he was thirty-seven, that Burkitt started to develop an interest in birds. Through his work on the methodology of plotting bird distribution, he became one of Ireland’s most influential ornithologists; he also made contributions to the understanding of threat display and territorial behaviour and song, and was the first person to use ringing returns to estimate average age.
Burkitt died on 30 March 1959 at Ballinamallard, Co. Fermanagh, and was buried in Trory churchyard. He was married to Glendoline, a daughter of William Henry Hill of Cork.
Inst.CE: elected associate member, 1 March 1898; resigned 9 July 1915. Incorporated Association of Municipal and County Engineers: elected member 21 April 1900; remained a member until 1939 or 1940.
Addresses: Work: Courthouse, Downpatrick, Co. Down 1897; PO, Letterkenny, Co. Donegal, 1898; County Surveyor’s Office, Enniskillen, 1899-1940. Home: Lawnakilla, near Enniskillen, Co. Fermanagh.(2)
References All information in this entry not otherwise accounted for is from the entry on Burkitt by Helen Andrews in Dictionary of Irish Biography, ed. by James McGuire and James Quinn, 9 vols. (Cambridge University Press, 2009), II, 78-9, and from the archives of the Institution of Civil Engineers, kindly supplied by Mrs Carol Morgan. The fullest account of Burkitt’s life and career as county surveyor is in Brendan O’Donoghue, The Irish County Surveyors 1834-1944 (Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2007), 119-121.
(1) IB 81, 29 Apr 1939, 351; 82, 3 Feb 1940, 79. (2) Davis Coakley, Irish Masters of Medicine (Dublin, 1992), 333 (B.O’.D).
James Ludlow Elliot (17 June 1943 – 3 March 2011) was an American astronomer and scientist who, as part of a team, discovered the rings around the planet Uranus. Elliot was also part of a team that observed global warming on Triton, the largest moon of Neptune.
Elliot was born in 1943 in Columbus, Ohio and received his S.B. degree from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1965 and his Ph.D. degree from Harvard University in 1972. He held a postdoctoral position in Laboratory for Planetary Studies at Cornell University, and joined the faculty of Cornell’s Astronomy Department in 1977. After he discovered Uranus’s rings alongside Edward Dunham and Douglas Mink at Cornell, he returned to MIT in 1978 to serve as Professor of Physics, Professor of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, and Director of the George R. Wallace, Jr. Astrophysical Observatory until his death on March 3, 2011.
There is some debate on whether Elliot, et al. discovered the rings of Uranus, or whether William Herschel made an observation in 1797. However, scientific consensus seems to support Elliot as the discoverer.
Elliot is credited by the Minor Planet Center with one minor planet, the trans-Neptunian object (95625) 2002 GX32, which he co-discovered at CTIO in 2002. The main-belt asteroid 3193 Elliot, discovered by astronomer Edward Bowell at Anderson Mesa Station in 1983, was named in his honor.
James Davidson FZS (1849-1925) was a Scottish naturalist in colonial India. He was born at Maryhill near Glasgow and studied at Glasgow and Edinburgh Universities. He served in the Bombay Presidency after entering the Indian Civil Services and retired in 1897. During this time, he wrote extensively about the birds of the regions of present-day Uttara Kannada, Satara and Belgaum, corresponding with Allan Octavian Hume, to whom he gave his bird collection. He wrote numerous notes to Stray Feathers, the Journal started by Hume as well as to the journal of the Bombay Natural History Society.
Frank Jennings Tipler (born February 1, 1947) is a mathematical physicist and cosmologist, holding a joint appointment in the Departments of Mathematics and Physics at Tulane University. Tipler has written books and papers on the Omega Point based on Pierre Teilhard de Chardin’s religious ideas, which he claims is a mechanism for the resurrection of the dead. Some have argued that it is pseudoscience. He is also known for his theories on the Tipler cylinder time machine.
John Francis Michael Cannon (22 April 1930 – 31 March 2008) was a British botanist who held the role of Keeper of Botany at the Natural History Museum between 1978 and 1990.
Cannon joined the Department of Botany at the British Museum (Natural History), as it was then known, in October 1952. He was appointed as a scientific officer in the ‘General Herbarium’, with responsibility for one of the four sections into which the herbarium was divided. These were families 67 (Myrtaceae) to 107 (Asclepiadaceae). The following year he was given responsibility for planning and building a major new botany gallery – the first exhibition to be constructed in the museum following serious bomb damage during the second world war. It reflected a new approach to making museum natural history more accessible to a general audience, and was opened by Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother on 31 October 1962 and dismantled 20 years later.
Cannon was made Senior Scientific Officer in 1956; Principal Scientific Officer in 1964, and Keeper of Botany in 1977. He specialised in the study of Apiaceae (Parsley Family), especially African species. Cannon retired from the museum in 1990.
He was president of the Botanical Society of the British Isles from 1983 to 1985.
Victor Frederick “Viki” Weisskopf (September 19, 1908 – April 22, 2002) was an Austrian-born American theoretical physicist. He did postdoctoral work with Werner Heisenberg, Erwin Schrödinger, Wolfgang Pauli and Niels Bohr. During World War II he was Group Leader of the Theoretical Division of the Manhattan Project at Los Alamos, and later campaigned against the proliferation of nuclear weapons.
John Thomas Irvine Boswell Syme’s biography, age, height, fact, career, awards, net worth, salary, income, family tree, personal life and life story.
John Edward Sowerby (17 January 1825 – 28 January 1870) was a British botanical illustrator and publisher born in Lambeth, London on 17 January 1825. Part of the Sowerby family, he was eldest son of Charles Edward Sowerby and grandson of James Sowerby. John inherited a taste for botanical drawing, and in 1841 produced his first work—the plates for his father’s Illustrated Catalogue of British Plants. His life was thenceforth mainly spent in illustrating botanical works, in collaboration with Charles Johnson (1791–1880), and Charles Pierpoint Johnson, who contributed the text. His only independent work was An Illustrated Key to the Natural Orders of British Wild Flowers, published in 1865. He died on 28 January 1870 in London at Lavender Hill, Clapham. He married on 10 February 1853 Elizabeth, youngest daughter of Roger and Ann Dewhurst of Preston, Lancashire. She survived him, and, in recognition of the scientific value of his work, was granted a civil list pension.
Rodolphe Meyer de Schauensee (January 4, 1901 – April 24, 1984) was an American ornithologist.
He was born in Rome, Italy, and his family moved to the United States in 1913. He was curator of birds at the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia for nearly fifty years. He was particularly noted for his study of South American birds. He expanded the Academy’s collection of bird skins, taking part in collecting trips to Brazil, Thailand, Burma, southern Africa, the East Indies and Guatemala.He wrote birds of south america.
Grote Reber (December 22, 1911 – December 20, 2002) was a pioneer of radio astronomy, which combined his interests in amateur radio and amateur astronomy. He was instrumental in investigating and extending Karl Jansky’s pioneering work, and conducted the first sky survey in the radio frequencies.
His 1937 radio antenna was the second ever to be used for astronomical purposes and the first parabolic reflecting antenna to be used as a radio telescope. For nearly a decade he was the world’s only radio astronomer.
John Muir (/mjʊər/; April 21, 1838 – December 24, 1914) also known as “John of the Mountains”, was a Scottish-American naturalist, author, environmental philosopher, glaciologist and early advocate of preservation of wilderness in the United States. His letters, essays, and books of his adventures in nature, especially in the Sierra Nevada of California and Nevada, have been read by millions. His activism helped to preserve the Yosemite Valley, Sequoia National Park and other wilderness areas. The Sierra Club, which he founded, is a prominent American conservation organization. The 211-mile (340 km) John Muir Trail, a hiking trail in the Sierra Nevada, was named in his honor. Other such places include Muir Woods National Monument, Muir Beach, John Muir College, Mount Muir, Camp Muir and Muir Glacier. In Scotland, the John Muir Way, a 130-mile-long route, was named in honor of him.
In his later life, Muir devoted most of his time to the preservation of the Western forests. He petitioned the U.S. Congress for the National Park bill that was passed in 1890, establishing Yosemite National Park. The spiritual quality and enthusiasm toward nature expressed in his writings inspired readers, including presidents and congressmen, to take action to help preserve large nature areas. He is today referred to as the “Father of the National Parks” and the National Park Service has produced a short documentary about his life.
John Muir has been considered “an inspiration to both Scots and Americans”. Muir’s biographer, Steven J. Holmes, believes that Muir has become “one of the patron saints of twentieth-century American environmental activity,” both political and recreational. As a result, his writings are commonly discussed in books and journals, and he is often quoted by nature photographers such as Ansel Adams. “Muir has profoundly shaped the very categories through which Americans understand and envision their relationships with the natural world,” writes Holmes. Muir was noted for being an ecological thinker, political spokesman, and religious prophet, whose writings became a personal guide into nature for countless individuals, making his name “almost ubiquitous” in the modern environmental consciousness. According to author William Anderson, Muir exemplified “the archetype of our oneness with the earth”, while biographer Donald Worster says he believed his mission was “…saving the American soul from total surrender to materialism.” On April 21, 2013, the first ever John Muir Day was celebrated in Scotland, which marked the 175th anniversary of his birth, paying homage to the conservationist.
Henry Deane (26 March 1847 – 12 March 1924) was an Australian engineer, responsible for electrifying the Sydney tramway system and for building the Wolgan Valley Railway and Trans-Australian Railway.
Sir Harry James Veitch (24 June 1840 – 6 July 1924) was an eminent English horticulturist in the nineteenth century, who was the head of the family nursery business, James Veitch & Sons, based in Chelsea, London. He was instrumental in establishing the Chelsea Flower Show, which led to him being knighted for services to horticulture.
Shamit Kachru (Devanagari: शमित काचरू; born 1970) is a string theorist and a professor of physics at Stanford University and at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). He is the son of the Indian Kashmiri scholar Braj Kachru. He is married to Eva Silverstein, who is also a professor of theoretical physics at Stanford University and at SLAC. Kachru is an award-winning physicist and an expert in string theory and quantum field theory, and their applications in cosmology, condensed matter physics, and elementary particle theory. He has made central contributions to the study of compactifications of string theory from ten to four dimensions, especially in the exploration of mechanisms which could yield string models of dark energy or cosmic inflation.
He has also made notable contributions to the discovery and exploration of string dualities, to the study of models of supersymmetry breaking in string theory, and to the construction of calculable dual descriptions of strongly coupled particle physics and condensed matter systems using the AdS/CFT correspondence.
Kachru, a Professor of Physics at Stanford University, is a recipient of a Department of Energy Outstanding Junior Investigator Award, an Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Fellowship, a David and Lucile Packard Foundation Fellowship, the Bergmann Memorial Award, and the ACIPA Outstanding Young Physicist Prize.
In 1986, Kachru attended the prestigious Research Science Institute. He graduated from University High School in Urbana, Illinois and from Harvard University before obtaining a doctorate in physics from Princeton University under the supervision of Edward Witten. Kachru was a junior fellow at the Harvard Society of Fellows and a postdoctoral fellow at Rutgers University.
Kachru is best known for his extensive work on stabilizing the extra dimensions of string theory, in particular finding (along with Renata Kallosh, Andrei Linde, and Sandip Trivedi) the first models of accelerated expansion of the universe in low energy supersymmetric string compactifications.
He has also made notable contributions to string theory duality (with Cumrun Vafa), the AdS/CFT correspondence (with Eva Silverstein), and to the
construction of models of cosmic inflation in string theory.
Harold Albert Wilson FRS (1 December 1874 – 1964) was an English physicist.
Alphonso Wood (1810 – January 4, 1881) was an American botanist and theology instructor. He was the author of several works on botany that were popularly used as instructional texts in the 19th century.
John Marlan Poindexter (born August 12, 1936) is a retired United States naval officer and Department of Defense official. He was Deputy National Security Advisor and National Security Advisor for the Reagan administration. He was convicted in April 1990 of multiple felonies as a result of his actions in the Iran–Contra affair, but his convictions were reversed on appeal in 1991. More recently, he served a brief stint as the director of the DARPA Information Awareness Office for the George W. Bush administration. He is the father of NASA astronaut and U.S. Navy Captain Alan G. Poindexter.
Robert B. Griffiths (February 25, 1937) is an American physicist at Carnegie Mellon University. He is the originator of the consistent histories approach to quantum mechanics, which has since been developed by himself, Roland Omnès, Murray Gell-Mann, and James Hartle.